Gc ^- L"
ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 1833 02301 6600
^7 INA WARREN, son of Daniel and Mary Warren,
^■^ was born in North Carolina, September 9, 1831;
died April 1, 1911, being- at his death seventy-nine
years, six months and twenty-one days old. His
parents moved to Wayne County, Indiana, when he
was quite young. Shortly afterward they moved to
this community where the deceased was reared,
educated and lived all his life.
In the year of 1854, he became acquainted with
Isabelle Thomas and in 1855 they were married. To
this union were born six children, three of whom died
when quite young-. Those living- are Mrs. Thomas J.
Newkirk and Will W. Warren, of Chicag-o, and Mrs.
Lizzie Hodg-ins, of Carmel.
In 1862 he became converted to the Christian
relig-ion, but did not join the M. E. Church until 1868,
of which he remained a loyal member until death.
He leaves a wife, three children, six g^rand-
children, three sisters and one brother, and many
other relatives and friends to mourn their loss.
Remjnis^ence^s oj^^ A^o
BEING A HISTORICAL SKETCH
The Early Settlement of Bethlehem,
now Carmel and Vicinity
AN ACCOUNT OF THE INDIANS
And of The Doings and Makeshifts of the Early
Pioneers Who have passed away with a
Partial List of Their Names
A LIST OF THE DEAD OF BETHLEHEM-CARMEL
An Account of Merchandising and Other Branches of Business
Accidents, Suicides, Shootings, Fires, Etc. np to 1911
Immigration and Settlement
TT IS with some reluctance that I undertake to
■^ write a history, not beingf a Bidj^ath, Bancroft,
or a Pliny, but I will try to make it truthful and ask
the reader to excuse any incong^ruities of composition,
believing" that at a future time this record of the past
will be of some benefit, being" written by one who is
seventy-nine years old and has voted for president
fifteen times, scoring" eleven, and lived with the
history of our country throug"h three wars and five
As my parents were the first white settlers in this
immediate vicinity, and Daniel Warren, Sr. , my father,
the founder of Bethlehem, now Carmel, I will first
give a little sketch of their history, immigration, and
Daniel Warren, Sr., was born in the year 1791 and
was of Eng"lish descent. He was about eig"ht years old
when General Washing"ton died and could remember
the universal sorrow, and of hearing" such expressions
as "I suppose General George Washington is dead."
In his younger days he was a hatter in North Carolina
and worked, not in "Beard's Hatter Shop," but in old
Salem. He was a son of Joseph Warren, who fell
pierced in the breast by a bullet in battle with the
British, one month and nineteen days after they
burned the Capitol at Washing-ton. He, Daniel War-
ren, was only prevented by sickness from participating-
in the battle of "Perry's Victory" in Lake Erie, near
Grandfather Warren was at home on furloug-h, and
the day arrived for him to start back to the army, to
return never more; but,
Soldier, rest, thy warfare o'er;
Sleep the sleep that knows no waking,
Till the resurrection morn.
My mother's maiden name was Mary Hoover. She
was born about 1795. Her father, Jonas Hoover, and
a relative, Rudolph Weymire, who was a soldier in
the battle of Detting-en in 1743, immig-rated from
Hanover, Germany, sometime after the above date.
My parents immig-rated from North Carolina in
1831, when Andrew Jackson was president, and
Napoleon was sleeping- on St. Helena. They loaded
their wag-on for the new country, Indiana, the then
"Par West," putting- in among-st other thing's a box of
g-ing-er cakes of home manufacture, and a little tin
trunk filled with "Hard Money" with which to buy
land; nothing- but g-old or silver would be received by
the g-overnment for land.
They left their married daug-hter, Ruth, never
expecting to see her ag-ain, the distance being- almost
as far then as around the world now. But in a few
years a wag-on arrived at our house, and the occupants
sent some one in who asked mother if she would like
to see Ruth. She said "Yes, but I never expect to."
He told her to gfo out to the wagfon if she wanted to
see her — they had immigrated.
Emigrants from North Carolina and other parts
came occasionally. One day a covered wag'on drove
up to our house; they were folks from North Carolina,
and some relation to my mother. After a little while
their little flaxen haired girl approached rather shyly
and handed me a large red streaked apple, and I
expect the very stem was chewed up. Apples were
not often seen, there being- but one orchard in the
vicinity of seedling trees, planted by the Indians.
What became of that little girl? Long since departed,
but one of her sons is now a prominent business man
on West Main Cross Street, Carmel.
The little tin trunk, spoken of before, had a little
padlock and was kept locked, so no one could steal
their cash, and when camping- it would sometimes be
left unguarded in the wagon, not thinking anyone
would be hog enoug-h to carry off the whole trunk
bodily. Nowadays there mig-ht be some persons that
A little incident happened at the ferry over the
Ohio River at Gallipolis. Two ferries were running-
in opposition; one offered to take us over for a little
less, then the other underbid him, and so on until one
said, "Come on with me and I will take you over for
nothing." Then the other, not to be outdone, said,
"Come with me and I will take you over for nothing
and treat to a pint of whisky." I do not remember
hearing- my father say which one he went with. We
passed througfh Chillicothe, Ohio, and at Richmond,
Indiana, called upon David Hoover, my mother's rela-
tive, who laid out the city and gave it its name.
My father, Daniel Warren, entered one hundred
and sixty acres of land, cornering- where now is the
southwest corner of Main and Main Cross Streets of
Carmel. The patent deed had the sig-nature of Andrew
Jackson, then president.
There were yet some Indians, bears, panthers and
wolves and deer galore, wild turkeys, pheasants,
rattle snakes, and squirrels in g^reat abundance-
When burning- brush at night, droves of deer, attract-
ed by the lig-ht, would come near enough for their
eyes to be seen. About where Edmund Graves' house
now stands, my brother saw one lying- in a tree top,
and when he threw a stick at it, fifteen jumped up and
ran flopping their tails. When a dog- got after one
he would often be thwarted by a fence, the deer mak-
ing it at one bound.
The Rail Pen
The first thing- to do after landing in the then
solid wilderness, on the quarter section now the farm
of Jonathan Johnson, was to cut down an oak tree
and split enough rails to make a rail pen, and boards
to cover it. A fire-place was left on one side and a
"back-log" rolled in place, and a door on another
side, to which a sheet was hangfed up for a shutter.
This was the first house! Look at it — and it was
about the second day of blustery March.
They lived in this house for six weeks, three of
which mother and the children were left alone while
father was on the hunt of his horses, which had
estra5'^ed, and there were the Indians and wild animals,
and no white neig"hbors near. Droves of hung-ry
wolves would come up of nigfhts with their dismal
howling-. My father later kept dry brush heaps in
stock, so that when the wolves got too fresh he could
set fire to one, and the lig"ht would scare them away
for that nig-ht.
They had to have pens and shut the sheep and
hogs up of nig-hts to secure them from the wolves.
One nigfht the wolves were howling-, and they had for-
g-otten to shut the hog"s up, and my two elder brothers
went in the dark to shut them up.
A Field of the Dead
At another time they neg^lected to put the sheep
in the fold, and in the morning- "A field of the dead
rushed red on their sig-ht, and the lambs and the sheep
were scattered in the fig-ht." A long- pasture field was
strewn with dead sheep from one end to the other, the
wolves only sucking- the blood from their throats.
The Log Cabin
After living- in the rail pen six weeks our folks
set about building- a house. They made no cement
foundation, had no lumber or hardware bill to pay,
no brick for chimney, no plastering-, painting- or
papering-; but rocks for corner stones, on which they
built up with beech log-s, scalped a little on two sides
and notched down at the corners. Round poles made
the joists and rafters, and clap-boards, split boards
about four feet long, for the roof and ceiling-. The
boards on the roof were held in place by poles, and
the boards were laid loose on the joists.
The cracks were "dobbed" with clay which, after
drying-, would crack and sometimes pieces would g-et
knocked out, and here we see the orig-in of the phrase
"knocking- the dobbin" out of anyone. The floor was
made of "puncheons," split slabs with the edg-es
trimmed to fit tog"ether. The chimney was made of
split sticks covered with clay, and the hearth and
back wall of clay. The stairway was a ladder.
The doors were made of split boards with wooden
hing-es and latch, having a string to it, and passed to
the outside through a hole in the door, pulling the
string would unlatch the door and by pulling the
string inside your door was fastened from the outside.
Here we see the origin of the expression of hospitality
by saying "the latch string will be out."
A few holes were bored and wooden pegs driven
in for wardrobe hooks, and there was the house ready
to move into. After a few years my father built a
more pretentious house, the present old one on the
Jonathan Johnson farm. The old log cabin was sold
and moved to town for a stable and has decayed, ex-
cept a small piece preserved by the writer.
In the early days of the first settlement there
were no pike roads, steam or electric roads, locomo-
tives, teleg-raph, telephone, wireless, express office,
bank, post office, rural routes, postage stamps, en-
velopes, postal and post cards, money orders, steel
pens, matches, kerosene, gfasoline, electric lig-hting-
or power, natural or artificial g-as, cement walks or
building- blocks, buggies, carriages, tile, bicycles,
motorcycles, autos, taxicabs, tricycles, ice cream,
horse clippers, safety razors, daily papers, Sunday
papers, breach loaders, chloroform, ether, X-rays,
phonographs, incubators, manure spreaders, wind
mills, clover hullers, cultivators, hay rakes, corn
planters, corn shredders, sowing machines, sewing
machines, corn shockers, silos, mowing machines,
reapers, self binders, hay and straw balers, road
scrappers, organs, pianos, wire, wire screens, sausage
grinders, canned goods, lawn mowers, cigarettes,
moving pictures, high schools, factories, galvanized
iron, wire nails, gimlet pointed screws, corn shellers,
type writters, ratchet braces, patent screw drivers,
kinetoscopes, rubber tires, sacharine, glucose, Japan
dryer, eight hour law, aeroplanes, emery wheels, car-
borundum, bar sheer plows, systematic school books,
acetylane gas, cylinder presses, cook stoves, heating
stoves, star candles, carpet sweepers, knitting ma-
chines, cameras, photographs, fountain pens, gun
cotton, smokeless powder, dynamite, nitroglycerine,
traction or gasoline eng-ines, threshing- machines,
straw stackers, separators, oil lamps, glass lanterns,
cream separators, creameries, sorg^hum, rubber shoes,
and various other thing's.
If the pioneers had microbes, they did not know
it. They had no tuberculosis, it was only consump-
tion; had no hosiery, only stocking-s and socks; no
cemeteries, only g^raveyards; no churches, only meet-
ing" houses, and after musical instruments came, no
violins, only fiddles. The towns had no restaurants,
they were only eating houses.
For mail, the pioneers went to Westfield after the
office was established there. Postage rates was ac-
cording to distance, and letters limited to half an
ounce, and to but one or two sheets of paper. For
long distances the rate was twenty-five cents, and
you could prepay or not, as you preferred. For steel
pens they used goose quills, which were staple articles
of trade at the store, when there was one, and they
brought three cents per dozen in goods. For ink they
boiled a little maple bark, to which was added a
small lump of copperas, and they had a jet black ink.
Lanterns were made of tin, perforated with small
holes to let a little stray light through, and with a
door on one side, and had a short tube inside to place
a bit of candle. Next came an improvement, the four
sides were of glass, held together at the corners by
strips of tin. Then came lard oil and glass flue, and
lastly the kerosene article now in use.
It is not necessary to mention the big- kettles of
whole grain lye hominy, but will here tell how they
made a mortar to crack corn to make "small hominy"
before the advent of the first grist mill. A cut about
two feet long" from a beech log would be set up on
end, live coals of fire placed in the center of the top,
on which bits of wood were placed, and the fire kept
burning" till a round bottomed cavity was burned out,
watching" to see that it was not burning" too near the
edges. Then this black cavity was dug" and scooped
out to remove the charred part, and it was finished.
Then for a pestle or "hominy beater" they split a
stick and put the flat part of the iron wedg"e in the
opening" and fastened it by lashing tig"htly.
Joseph Green made combs of cows' horns, and
Jacob Green, Sr., and Nathan Hawkins, cooperage,
iron bound well buckets which were staple articles,
all of which could be bartered for.
They made their maple sugar and molasses, and
if camps were not too far apart, when one "stirred
off" they sent for the neighboring camp people to
come and eat wax. Sometimes when out of maple
molasses, they would boil pumpkin juice to a mo-
lasses. Children would make wooden spoons for wax,
in the winter to have them ready.
Oh, there is yet an indescribable charm to the
very name of the "sugar camp" where we would lean
against, or sit on a mossy log, or climb a tall "sap-
pling-" and eat our big- ball of wax. Eating- much wax
would g-ive one an appetite for something salty, and
we would take to the camp in the morning- some slices
of regular, Simon pure, dyed in the wool, home cured
ham, bread and eggs, and for dinner fry the eg-gs in
the ham gravy, or "sop," make spice wood tea by
boiling- sugar-water till sweet enoug-h, have warm
maple molasses, then eat our dinner in the wildwood,
a big- log- being our table. A true picture, but never
to be realized ag-ain as "Our fug-itive years are all
I will tell here what a predicament our folks were
in at one sug-ar making- time. They cooked on the
fire-place, and, in order to save the sug-ar water, had
taken many of the cooking- utensils to the camp, and
an itenerant preacher came. Mother hardly knew
how to do; and just to think, that he was a preacher!
She apolog-ized, but in after years she concluded that
preachers are about like other people.
The pioneers made their own clothing- of wool
from the sheep's back, and flax from the flax patch.
The wool was sheared, washed, picked, carded, spun,
colored and wove up into cloth. They even had but-
ton moulds and cast their buttons of pewter, sticking-
a little wooden peg- in a certain place to make the
eye. If they had no pewter and did not want to melt
up a pewter plate, they used lead instead. Those not
having- moulds would borrow. Some buttons were
made of g-ourd shells, cut round and corered with
cloth. Gourds were raised for dippers and drinking"
cups; one would be hung" up at wells and spring's, and
oh, what a g^ood drink one could g-et from an old-
The women knit stocking's and socks. Straw hats
were made for summer; for winter lambs' wool was
taken to Mr. Hennings at Westfield, and made up into
hats on the shares. For shoes, hides were tanned on
the shares, and made up by shoe-makers the same
They made their own soap with lye and grease.
They sowed their flax and when mature, pulled it up
by the roots and spread it out in rows on the grass
for the stalk to rot and be brittle. Then it was put
upon a scaffold and kiln dried, and there were four
things which to the rising g'eneration would be nonde-
scripts — a flax break, an upright scutching' board, a
wooden scutching- knife, or paddle, and a hackel.
The flax was then put in the break and the stalk
broken into short pieces, then passed to the scutching'
board and the "shoves" knocked out, then it was
pulled through the hackel, which separated the short
fiber from the long'. The long" was reg^ular flax ready
to spin, and the short was "tow," which was coarse
and had scraps of stalk left in it. It was made into
tow linen for pants and shirts, and pity the skin of
those who had to wear them. Some of the tow was
spun into twine and traded at the store for wrapping'
twine. Think of the merchant using- tow string- and
coarse brown paper, made of straw and woolen rag-s,
to wrap up packag-es. They had no paper sacks but
sometimes the store-keeper's wife would paste some
of the brown paper into sacks in which to tie up
I will tell a tow-shirt tale. A boy, who is yet
livings, had nothing- else on, waiting' while his mother
was patching his tow pants. A man was seen coming
and his mother told him to run up in the loft, but it
was such a rare thing- to see somebody coming-, could
he foreg-o the sight? No, he split to the door first to
see the man, who by that time was in the yard, then
ran up the ladder to the loft. His mother explained,
and the man, Elias Johnson, said he understood it all.
That boy walked carefully over the clapboard floor
so as not to step on the end of a board, for if he had
it would have tipped and landed him on the lower
floor with banner flying.
Before leaving- the flax subject, I will relate the
disastrous ending- of a flax breaking and scutching-,
about seventy years ag-o, on the farm now owned by
Jonathan Johnson. All was in readiness and work
had beg-un; the season's flax in sheaves was dry on the
scaffold over the fire and around it, some of which was
broken, scutched and hackled, when the boy, who is
yet living-, and who was scutching a strand of flax,
one end of which was wrapped around his hand, g-ot a
little lazy, or cold, and in yanking- around and stand-
ing- with his back to the fire, the lower end of his dry
flax came into contact with the flame. Then such
another yelping- and jumping"! In trying- to get the
burning- flax off his hand, he did such a lively job of
flopping- it up and down that he set fire to the whole
kiln of flax, and that which was broken, the pile of
scutched, hackled and the pile of tow. So the whole
kit was destroyed, the flax work all done, and the boy
left with a burned hand as a reminder.
Before matches came into use the pioneer covered
fire with ashes, but if it failed to keep they would go
to the nearest neighbor and borrow fire, or strike fire
with flint and steel. Many times they would have to
go for fire before they could get breakfast. Some
kept a log- heap or stump burning to furnish fire.
For gates they made bars and hay forks were cut
from the woods and trimmed up nicely and the prongs
sharpened. For cathartics they boiled white walnut
bark and made pills. Many had not coffee mills and
would put the coffee in a rag- and pound on a flat-iron,
and in the event of g-etting- out of coffee, and the store
being- miles away, they would brown corn-bread crusts
on live coals, or as a substitute, brown wheat, if they
Instead of barshear plows they used the jumping
shovel. For reapers, mowing- machines and self-
binders, they used the sickle, cradle and scythe. For
threshing machines, they spread the wheat out on the
barn floor, or a smooth level place on the g-round, and
had horses to g-o round over it till the g-rain was
tramped out, or beat the grain out with a "flail." The
grain was then run through a fan mill to separate
from the chaff, and if they had no fan mill would flop
a sheet up and down to blow the chaff away.
Instead of magazines, they read Poor Richard's
Almanac. For school books they had the English
Reader, Pike's Arithmetic, Walker's Dictionary, and
Webster's Elementary Spelling Book, and introduc-
tion to the English Reader.
The schools did not have many classes, as the
books were miscellaneous, scholars taking whatever
kind they happened to have; for reading books, his-
tories, etc., were used and there were cases in which
scholars not having books took a newspaper in place
of a reading book.
For light, if they had tin candle moulds, they
would mould tallow candles, the wicks of which
would have to be snuffed off occasionally or they
would give but little light, and candle snuffers were
staple articles. Not having moulds, they would dip
the wick into melted tallow, and let it cool, repeating
the process till they would have an irregular and un-
sightly candle which they called "schluts," or tallow
dips. But not having tallow, an iron lamp, kept for
sale by the store, was used. It was to hold grease
and had a twisted rag for a wick. Not having the
iron lamp, a saucer was used to hold the grease, with
a rag wick extending over the edge. •
Instead of an eight or ten hour law, men's work
was from sun up till sun down at about twenty-five
cents per day. The women cooked by fire-place, the
four main cooking" utensils were of cast iron; a tea-
kettle, skillet with lid, bake oven with lid and a stew
kettle. Later on the frying" pan with a long handle
The first sig"n of preparing" a meal was to see the
teakettle set on the fire, and the skillet and lid placed
on to heat. When hot, live coals were shoveled on to
the hearth to set the skillet of bread to bake, putting"
on the hot lid and shoveling" live coals on it. Then
there was the "Johnny cake," corn bread shortened
with home rendered lard, or "cracklines" if at hog"-
killing" time, and spread out on a "Johnny cake"
board and baked by the direct heat of the fire, on both
sides by turning". Good enough for a meal without
anything^ else; yum! yum!
It would sometimes happen that the teakettle
would upset on the fire. Ho! then there was a mina-
ture Vesuvius, with steam, ashes and soot flying", and
kids and cats following" suit, or soot, but not in the
same direction. Later on, swinging" iron cranes were
used over the fire place with different leng"th S hooks
to suspend kettles and pots on.
For brooms, they made hickory ones by taking"
the body of a hickory bush of proper size and leng"th
and stripping" the toug"h splints from the end up
apiece, then from hig"her up the splints were pulled
down over the lower ones and then tied, and the bal-
ance of the stick was shaved down to proper size for
Lead pencils had no wood on them, were about
the size of our present ones, but were all solid and of
the same material contained in our present ones.
After writing- awhile one's thumb and fing-er would be
black. Inkstands were sold in the store and were
made of two or three thick pieces of cork fastened
together with wooden pegs and a hole left in the
center in which was a little glass receptacle for the
Goose quill pens were used in the schools, and
when one got out of repair the pupil would g^o and
hand it to the teacher, no words being passed, and he
would remake the pen and hand it back. The teacher
had a small sharp knife for that purpose, and here is
the origin of the word penknife.
Very early not many had clocks, and a "noon-
mark" was cut in the floor at the south door to indi-
cate dinner time and if the sun was not shining they
could guess at it. For pumps they had the "well
sweep" with an iron bound well bucket on the end of
a pole or rope, or a windlass with a crank, by turning'
which the rope and bucket were let down and drawn
Before flax was ready, well ropes were made of
the outer bark or fiber of nettles, some one having' a
rope twisting machine, which served for the whole
neighborhood and on which later they made their
ropes of flax or tow. There was some art in the pro-
cess, and the uninitiated had to be shown. The rope
maker was a twister, and.
When a twister a twisting, would twist him a twist,
For by the twisting of his twine, he three twines doth entwist.
But if one of the twines of the twist doth untwist.
The twine that untwisteth, untwisteth the twist.
The Gas Well
In stating- the tliing-s tlie pioneers did not have, I
said they had no natural gas, but they had one gas well
and did not know it.
Ezekiel Clampitt dug a water well on his land,
east of where now is the Friends Church at Poplar
Ridge, and after he had come out, heard such a sizzing
noise at the bottom that he attempted to let down a
lighted candle to see if the "damps" were in it. A
man having on tow clothing, which had been worn
til] nappy, was sitting on the edge of the well with
his legs hanging down in it, and Mrs. Clampitt was
standing near the edge with her baby in her arms.
When the flame of the candle reached the edge of the
well there was an explosion, and a flame of fire
heavenward. Mr. Clampitt's hat was blown off, Mrs.
Clampitt was knocked down, and woe to the man sit-
ting on the edge — it set the nap of his tow clothing
afire, burning all over him. People came to see the
wonder, and after it had been burning for some time,
Mr. Clampitt was afraid of it, and filled the well up,
and dug one in another place.
The First Cook Stove
About 1839, the first cook stove in this immediate
vicinity, an old style step-stove, was broug-ht here
from Ohio by Caleb Harvey. My father bought it of
him for twenty-five dollars. Neighbors came to see
cooking" done on a stove.
The First Grist Mill
In very early days a grist mill was built on Cold
Creek in the vicinity of Smoky Row, and was still
operated up to, and sometime during the war, or
later. There was more water in the creek in early
days than now, but when it got low the "head gate"
would be shut down till the dam was full, then they
could run the mill till that head of water was ex-
hausted. In the forties, perhaps, a saw mill was
added, but it was not the first one.
The first saw mill was erected by Benjamin Mend-
enhall on the creek east of town, and later, I believe,
the Wise boys had a steam circle mill near there.
William Wilkinson had a saw mill in the Mattsville
Settlement, later turned into a grist mill. There was
a saw mill at Gray, Poplar Ridge, Mulberry Corner,
with grist mill added, Pleasant Grove, and one south
of there, north of here, by the Jeffries brothers, one
at one time on Old Town Run; one here, a band saw
mill by Charles Wilkinson, then Buck & Crags bought
and changed it to a circle mill, and later it was
destroyed by fire. Then John E. Buck built another,
which was finally removed from here. One by the
Laycock Manufacturing' Company, which also burned
down; then the present one commenced. There was
a g-rist mill in the Mattsville Settlement, known as
the Macy Bond Mill, run by water.
The first steam saw mill here was built by Samuel
Carey, Joseph Macy and Bohan Harvey in 1847. It
was a sash mill, the log's being- hauled up into the
second story on an inclined plane, and stood near
where the school building- now stands. It was later
known as the Gideon Newby mill, he chang-ing- it into
a circle mill on the g-round story. Then later, he, in
partnership with Silas Beeson, added a g-rist mill.
When this saw mill was first started they sold clear
poplar lumber at 37i cents per hundred, but later
raised to 50 cents.
In operating- this saw mill when first built, they
sometimes did not have power enoug-h, the safety
valve rising- and letting- steam off; so Mr. Harvey, one
of the firm, g-ot on top of the boiler and sit on the end
of the lever to hold it down! When some of them
were at the machine shop at the city where the eng-ine
was made, and related the incident, the first answer
they received was "Jeff Davis is a liar! He said the
Indiana soldiers would not stand battle. Anyone who
w^ould sit upon that lever would face the cannon's
This was in the time of the Mexican war. After
the Monon railroad came, T. E. Carey and W. P.
Dixon erected the present flowing- mill now operated
by R. J. Follett & Co.
At the time of first settling-, the woods were much
different from what they are now. The large timbers
were standing- — poplar, walnut, ash, oak, hickory,
cherry, etc. There was an underg-rowth of bushes
more than now, and larg-e bunches of spicewood
which threw out arms from six to eight feet long,
with smaller sprouts in the center. There were many
patches of hazel and what spaces were left were
covered with weeds, nettles and wild pea vines, the
latter some places waist high and woe to any one
whose lot it was to go through the woods just after a
rain! He would get as wet as a drowned rat. Just
let him touch a limb and a shower was upon him, and
it seemed that the water was wetter than now.
The next thing in order, after building log cabins,
was to look after clearing land for cultivation. First
the bushes were cut down and small ones and sprouts
grubbed up. The trees were either chopped down, or
deadened by chopping around them. The best of the
oaks and walnuts were split into rails, the others
deadened but left standing either for future use, or
when dead and dry, cut down, "niggered" off, rolled
together and burned along with various other species
which would be valuable saw timber now.
The tree being dead, their limbs were broken up
in falling and were piled up and burned. At this
distant day that looks like a waste of timber and fire-
wood. There was some sale for poplar trees after
awhile, and good ones brought fifty cents per tree.
But the trees are felled and,
'Ere other forests shall rise in their stead,
The most of us will surely be dead.
Until enough land could be cleared for both wheat
and corn, corn bread was the rule. When the first
crop of wheat came in, only think of biscuits of well
kneaded dough, baked in a hot skillet over live coals
and under a hot lid by a fire-place and eaten with
fried ham and eggs, spicewood tea and maple molasses
and with appetites sharpened by not having wheat
bread for so long a time. Your finest cake would be
nowhere in comparison.
At some harvests the wheat would be "sick" and
the bread would make one sick, except a rare few
who could eat it with impunity, my father being one,
and mother would make biscuits for him only. One
day our good neighbor, Eli Phelps, came and stayed
for dinner and took one of the biscuits, thinking that
if father could eat them he could, but after dinner he
was sick enough.
Ginseng, or "sang" was plentiful and was a staple
article of trade after a store came, at which it was
bartered at twenty-five cents per pound, washed and
The squirrels were of gray species and were so
very numerous that in order to raise any corn, the
neig"hbors would arrang^e hunting" parties to thin them
out and being too numerous to carry, and as they
could not use so many, they strung their scalps, and
the one having- the most scalps was the best man. In
course of time the fox squirrel came around and the
The blackbirds were so numerous they had to be
scared off by a "hoss fiddle" making" a great clacking-
racket to keep them from taking- up the newly planted
In the autumn there was such a profusion of dry
fallen leaves that when fire g-ot started in them,
woods and fences were in dang-er and all the neig-hbors
had to drop everything- and fig-ht fire. There was an
odor of burnt leaves and a pall of smoke hang-ing- in
the direction of the fire.
We found aborig-ines, called "Indians," "First
Americans." Perhaps they and the mound builders
were one and the same. The author of the "Pre-
historic World," after canvassing- the subject, finally
concluded that they and the mound builders, cliff
dwellers, and the builders of the magnificent ruins of
Mexico, Yucatan and Bolivia, the Aztecs, the Taltecs
and Eskimos were one and the same race, but in
different states of advancement.
God is in history which no man can unravel.
Who can tell us who, without iron tools, sculptured
the statues of Chaac Mol and Huitzilopochtli? The
latter was unearthed in the city of Mexico. Ghost of
Tenoclititlan, can'st thou tell? The Indian women
strapped their papooses on a board and carried it
on their backs. There was one case in which the
squaw, before entering- a white neighbor's house, left
her papoose leaning against the outside of the house
and an old sow came along and ate it. The poor
woman mourned and cried, "Oh, my poor papoose,
my poor papoose!"
There was one family of Indians by the name of
Ketcham that lived a little southwest of Mahlon Day's
residence, on the west of the little stream, and there
was a good sulphur spring on a little solid spot, but
the ground around it was soft and shaky. There was
an ever-ready gourd hanging near out of which to
drink. The marsh has been drained and the spring is
no more. A few trees of the Indian's orchard are yet
standing. Pieces of bright lead ore and flint darts
were found in the cabin.
The Indian's given name was Charley. He made
a sale preparatory to going beyond the Mississippi
to the Indian Territory. After going there one of his
sons became a Methodist preacher. While living here
my father traded him a silver watch for furs, and did
not explain to him about its having to be wound up
and when it stopped running, he came back with it
and said, "Watch no good; white man no good." Upon
being shown that it had to be wound, he said, "Watch
all right; white man all right."
The Indians were friendly; my mother was kind to
them and would give them things and talk to the
squaws. My mother was called "Polly" and it hap-
pened that two other white women's names were the
same, and after that old Charley called all white
At the time of his sale he was jolly, having im-
bibed too much "fire water." His squaw's name was
Nancy, and he wanted to sell everything, and went
around saying: "I sella my dog, I sella my Nance, I
sella my papoose. Will you buy. Poll?" My father
bought a few articles at the sale and went and paid
for them on the day due, and the Indian said, "Good
white man." He did not understand English as well
as his squaw, and mother told him that people said
the Indians would kill white folks, and said to him,
"You won't, will you?" and he quickly ejaculated
with emphasis, "Yes!" But his squaw said that he
did not understand, and that he was all right.
The Ketchams, in some way, became rich after
going to the Indian Territory, and drove in their
coach. Not very many years ago, John P. Carey,
when in the Territory, ran across and interviewed old
Charley. Mr. Carey told him he was from here in
Indiana, and he said, "Indiana?" and asked whose son
he was, and when told said: "O, yes, Sammy Carey,
good white man. Stay for dinner."
There was another set of Indians between Edmond
Graves' and William Morrows' homes. They had tents
and many hounds for hunting-. Mother went some
distance to a white neig^hbors and left my brother
with them till she came back, and the squaw g^ave
him a piece of dried venison, which was so salty that
he could not eat it, and he was afraid not to eat
it for fear they would kill him. He chewed at it till
he got into a patch of hig-h weeds and then threw it
away. The Indian woman told of their singing- their
song's and mother asked her if they sang^ g^ood song's
and she answered: "Do you think we'd sing- bad
song's?" She told the Indian woman that before they
came to this country they were told that the Indians
could track white folks by their scent. The answer
was: "Are white folks fools, and think Indians are
The Indian and white boys ran foot races, but the
former g^enerally outsprinted. They were experts
with bow and arrows and showed how they made their
flint darts, and fastened them on the arrows with the
tendrils of deer's legs. Sometimes they would come
begg'ing and say, "Indian wants" so and so.
There was another Indian southeast. His name
was "Johnny Cake." That sounds good. In one In-
dian grave was found a silver breast pin and in
another a g^un barrel.
I will wind up the Indian history by telling' a
soup tale. In those days a squad of these aborig'ines
likely returning' from an unsuccessful hunting" or fish-
ing expedition, and hungry, passed by a white set-
tler's who happened to have been butchering' hog's,
and asked for the entrails, which they carried with
them, and upon stopping- at another house beg"gfed
their dish water and the use of a larg-e kettle.
With the entrails for a body, and the dish water
for the broth, they had a kettle of hot soup. Then
each one got a piece of cornstalk which they sopped
in the soup, as they squatted around the kettle, and
sucked the "goody" from it till the soup was thus
licked up. Reader, how would that kind of a menu
strike your copperosity?
When the log's in a "clearing" were all burned or
chopped into lengths, it was very common to make a
"log rolling," inviting neighbors enough to roll into
"log heaps" a whole field in a day, and in order to
get good work by the young men, the women folks
would have a quilting or wool picking the same day,
the young folks knowing that so soon as the day's
work was over a party was to take place, and at its
close the boys would see the girls home. In like man-
ner they had house and barn raisings.
Foreign coins were legal tender and there were
more of Jbhem in circulation than our own, mostly
Spanish and Mexican, consisting of dollars, halves,
quarters, eighths and sixteenths. The quarters were
called shillings, or bits, the half quarter or eighth,
twelve and half cents was called "lebenpence" (eleven
pence) and the sixteenths, six and one-fourth cent
pieces, fips, or "fip'and a bit." I suppose tlie quarter
of the cent was the bit. In tlie days of fips we had
very hard times and a fip was about as hard to catch
as a dollar is now. A man's wages for covering- corn
at planting time was twenty-five cents, and a boy, if
an expert at dropping corn, got ten cents.
Wheat brought thirty-seven and a half cents per
bushel, but had to be hauled in a wagon to Lawrence-
burg or Cincinnati and a team would be on the road
about a week, bringing back a side of sole leather,
barrel of salt, etc. Salt was about ten dollars a
barrel. They would finish out the load coming back
with salt, iron, etc., for the home merchant. Corn
was as low as eight cents per bushel.
There was a wedding not in Cana of Galilee, but
near Bethlehem, now Carmel, and money being scarce
and groceries, etc., for the dinner being high, the
parents of the bride tried to get them to "put it off"
for awhile, but it is not necessary to add that it would
not "put off."
First Church and School House
It was the Friends log "meeting house," then
called Richland, on the south side of the cemetery,
then called "grave-yard." It was also used for a
school house, and was built about 1833. A sheet was
hung up for a door shutter till they could get lumber
for one. An addition, the same size, was built to this
house in 1835.
For fire they had boxes of clay and mortar in the
center, in which they burned charcoal, till later they
put in plain box stoves. These had plates near the
top to draw the blaze to the back part and then for-
ward again to the pipe in front. The plate of the one
in the school room, g^etting- so it would fall down, school
would have to adjourn until it was set up ag^ain and it
g"ot to behaving- so badly that one day, at the noon
play time, the teacher sent for, not the seven grave
cardinals who compelled Galileo to recant, but Isaac
Rich, one of the strict g-allery overseers of the church,
to come with his rifle and shoot it! After that they
had no more trouble with it, as he shot holes in the
sides of the stove, throug^h which iron rods were in-
serted to hold the plate up.
Before this log- building- disappeared, a new frame
one was built south of it in 1843 and 1845, but was
torn down after the location of the present one. On
the south of the above removed building- was the
brick Carmel Academy, later condemned and torn
down. Before the Academy, there was a frame school
building- east of the above mentioned torn down
church, used in the fifties, and which was removed
into Clay Township and finally sold.
There was a common school house on the road
south, on the northwest corner of J. W. Moffitt's pres-
ent residence farm which was finally sold and re-
moved. There were also other log- school houses, one
with one door and one window of four eight by ten
panes on the farm since owned by Jonah Pertig-. The
patrons met here to make the improvement of a long-
window and a plank for writing" lessons. They sawed
out one log", and pasted newspapers in its place and
then smeared soap grease on the paper, making it
translucent enough to let in a little light.
The old M. E. Church building on South Main
Street was finished in the fall of 1855, and was sold
and removed after the completion of the present new
one, which was dedicated March 4, 1906.
Tinkers^ Clock Repairers and Peddlers
In the early days the above personages passed
through the country, and mostly on foot. The tinker
carried a budget on his back in which was his melting
ladle and moulds for melting up and recasting the
pewter ware, basins, dishes, plates, spoons, etc.,
which were used in those days, and perhaps some
stock of pewter for casting additional ones. This
ware would get bent out of shape and tarnished, but
when recast was nearly as bright and nice as silver,
and would shine nicer than a "pewter dollar in a mud
The clock repairer was looked upon as a person
of more than ordinary ability, being able to pile up
the wheels of a clock, and then get them all back to
their places. A clock you can buy now for two or
three dollars cost about twenty then.
The foot peddler came along" occasionally, and
they could buy combs, buttons, thread, needles, pins,
Jews harps, red handkerchiefs, etc.
Five Dozen Eggs at One Meal
I can record a case in which a family of ten ate five
dozen boiled eggs at one meal and at another time ate
a pile of pumpkin pies about ten inches hig-h. Pump-
kins were plentiful, and eg-g-s sometimes, when any
sale for them at all, brought one and a half cents per
dozen. One farmer broug-ht a bushel basket full to
the store, and being no sale for them at any price,
threw them ag"ainst a stump one at a time.
It happened that Jonas Hoover was about to start
to see his neig"hbor, Barnaby Newby, and it being
wash day, his wife wanted him to take off his shirt to
be washed; but refusing-, she thoug^ht to fix him, and
smeared his shirt while on him all over with soft soap
so he would be compelled to take it off, but he was
stubborn and went to the neig-hbor's in that plig'ht.
Showing New Boots
Once upon a time it came to pass that some of the
young- men actually had boots and on a Sunday after-
noon and just after a heavy raiti, a party of them
were walking- over a pasture field and one had "boots
and wished it to be known. A little piece ahead a
small pond of water had spread out, and he ran and
jumped in it thinking" to make a big" splash and show
that he had boots, he went entirely under water and
came up the second time before being- rescued. He
had jumped into an old well overflown by the heavy
State and County Roads
Somewhere about 1835 the state road, now Main
Street, was hacked out from Indianapolis to Kokomo,
and the county road, now our Main Cross Street, a
little later. The bushes were cut and some trees
most in the way. Big- logs were in some places left
to be gone around. A little north of L. J. Small's
drug store was a large log lying across the road and
they put fire and a chunk on it, burning enough away
for one on horseback or afoot to pass through, but a
wagon had to go around it.
Starting a Town
In 1837 my father set about starting a town here,
being the intersection of the roads and where four
farms cornered, the southwest being his own. Two
others, Alexander Mills on the northeast and John
Phelps on the southeast, were willing to have land
platted and sell lots, but on the northwest the owner
was unwilling. My fathered offered him one hundred
dollars for an acre, enough for four lots. That being-
such a big price he accepted it. Then the grounds
were platted and recorded under the name of Bethle-
There were a plenty of tadpoles then, and my
father meeting a neighbor who was opposed to having-
a town, told him that we had a town and its name was
Bethlehem, and his answer was "Yes, Tadpoles
My father sold lots at whatever he could g-et for
them in order to start the town. One he sold for five
yards of home-made jeans of indifferent quality, and
the purchaser was to build a house on it and did of
small round logs, the cracks filled with clay, and
about large enough for a poultry house; but it filled
The postoffice was named Carmel, because there
was one in the state by the name of Bethlehem, In
the early sixties when the town was incorporated the
name was chang-ed to Carmel to accord with the name
of the postoffice.
Establishment of the Postoffice
On the 20th of January, 1846, the postoffice was
granted by the name of Carmel with service once a
week horseback. Joseph W. Macy was appointed
postmaster, and he served to January 4th, 1847, then
Levi Haines, Sr., was appointed. Mr. Haines served
until April 16th, 1850, when Isaac W. Stanton was
appointed. Mr. Stanton held till October 17th, 1853,
when Alfred T. Jessup was appointed. Mr. Jessup
held till April 3rd 1856, when John H. Kenyon took
charg-e. Mr. Kenyon served till February 26th, 1858,
when Jonathan J. Griffin superseded him. Mr. Grif-
fin's time ran up to the appointment of Alfred W.
Brown, September 14th, 1858. Then commenced a
long- term when Z. Warren took chargfe of the office,
first as assistant on the 6th of April, 1864, until re-
ceiving- his appointment and commission in the follow-
At this time postage to Oregon was ten cents for
a half ounce letter, and to Eng-land twenty-four cents,
later re-adjusted to twelve cents, then again to five,
and recently to two cents.
Z. Warren, the writer hereof, served till Novem-
ber 28th, 1885, when superseded by Eli G. Binford
during- Cleveland's first term. Warren's whole time
being twenty-one years, seven months and twenty-two
days. Postoflftce boxes were installed on the tenth of
June, 1864, and soon after a bi-weekly and later a tri-
weekly route was petitioned for and granted, via
Noblesville, and a hack ran to carry passeng-ers, and
later was g-ranted daily, and after a time was chang-ed
direct from Indianapolis, then again chang-ed back to
Noblesville, till the railroad commenced carrying- the
mail, June 15th, 1883. The first reg-ular passeng-er
train went throug-h on June 18th, 1883, northbound.
The money order and postal note business com-
menced about six months before Warren relinquished
the office. His successor, above mentioned, served
nearly four years, when J. W. Nutt was appointed in
1888, serving four years till 1892, when America Crag-s
was appointed and served four years till 1896. Then
George Bowen was appointed and served until resig-n-
ing- in the early part of 1909, and recommending the
present incumbent, Alfred V. Rayl, as his successor,
who was appointed and is our present postmaster, he
being" the thirteenth.
During the time of the horseback route, if the
river was up, even enough for an excuse, the carrier
would come only to Broad Ripple and leave our mail
there, and sometimes after not having any mail for
three weeks, we would send for it. This being the
darkest year of the war, we had the postmaster at
Indianapolis send our mail to Noblesville, and a club
was formed here to go after it, each one taking his
turn, and bringing daily papers.
The horseback carrier upon entering town blew a
blast on his tin trumpet to warn the postmaster to be
ready to change the mail so he could be on his way
ag"ain. When the mail hack ran one had little time at
the city, being on the road most of the time, and cold
if in winter. Think what a change now, carried in a
comfortable car by electricity in so short a time and
at little over one half the hack fare and advantage of
g^oing and returning at one's convenience.
A Rattlesnake Tale
About the year 1832 when there was yet a log-
heap in the yard of our rail pen, or log cabin, a large
yellow rattler came into the yard and crawled into
the heap, and my mother was alone with the children
and being- fearful for their safety, besides the old
grudge between the woman and the serpent anyhow,
(see Genesis) she planned to extinguish him. She g-ot a
"big" stick" and thinking-, "old fellow thee'll have to
come out of there" as she set fire to one end of the
dry heap, and stationed herself at the other. She did
not ask if it was hot enoug-h for him, but soon he
discovered that fact and came "poling-" out. She
struck one lick after another, hallowing- at each strike
just as loud as she could, and she landed him.
The First Store and Subsequent Ones
About the year 1835, it came to pass that a rumor
went forth that we were to have a store in Bethlehem
and soon it beg-an to assume a reality, as a round
beech-log- "store-house" was actually erected and
roofed with the conventional "clap-boards," and the
cracks between logs chunked and dobbed with clay.
By a certain Sunday it had g-ot to this stag-e, no floor
or shelving- yet, and the young men of the neighbor-
hood gathered there to discuss the great event.
Among those present were my brothers, Martin
Phelps and his brother John, Clarkson T. Cook, and
Jesse, or Joseph P. Cook, some of Isaac Rich's boys
and others in their Sunday clothes. The store stood
about where L. J. Patty's milliner shop and office
burned south of the bank,
A store was started in it by a man by the name of
Boggs, and his clerk's name was Benson Bogus. In
the fall the clerk would put a notice that he was out
gathering hickory nuts, and if some one came for a
spool of thread, bonnet board or wire, they would
hunt him up. Some of the staple goods were New
Orleans sug-ar and molasses, mackerel, blacksmith's
iron, dog" irons, cast iron, odd lids for skillets and
ovens, calico, "factory" (coarse muslin), bandana
handkerchiefs, Jew's harps, wooden combs, bonnet
boards and wire, pine tar, iron lamps, snuffers, wool
A barrel of mackerel would sometimes sit near
the door, being about the first thing one would see.
Their wrapping paper was called brown paper, made
of straw and woolen rags, no paper sacks then. As I
remarked in the flax and tow narrative, they would
buy tow twine for wrapping.
The first store did not remain very long, perhaps
a year or two, then we had no store ag^ain; but some-
times goods were brought and auctioned, then another
store would come and remain for awhile and then
leave, until Levi Haines, Sr., came with a store in the
same building, and after that we always had a store.
Mr. Haines took in Caleb Harvey as partner but they
soon dissolved partnership and the business was car-
ried on by the former as before.
After Mr. Haines retired. Little, Drum and An-
derson, of Indianapolis, put in a general store in the
same old building- in 1846 or 7, with Elijah King- as
Mr. King later bought them out and carried on the
business himself, and built a new frame building on
the corner where the bank now stands, and after a
time he took in Sylvanus Carey, and his son Josiah
E. King- as partners, and the firm was known as King",
Carey & King-. Mr. Carey g-oing- out, the firm was E.
King & Son. The son, Josiah E., left the firm in
March 1864, leaving his father, Elijah King, alone
again, he ran his stock down and closed out, auction-
ing- off the old traps etc., then repaired and painted
some, and started anew, not keeping g-roceries and
finally selling- out to his son, Prank H. King, who
added g-roceries again. After a time the latter was
appointed a missionary to Mexico by the society of
Friends, and disposed of his stock to Puckett &
Stanley, and after returning from Mexico took back
the stock of goods, and finally closed out, but after-
ward went into the shoe business on west Main cross
street, succeeded by Mr. T. H. Burkhart who of late
associated in partnership with Mr.T. A. Painter. Mr.
Burkhart retiring, leaves Mr. Painter sole proprietor.
The frame store building of Elijah King was
moved down on the "big ditch" by Joseph Hornbaker
for a blacksmith shop and it went up in smoke at the
time the Jefferies livery barn burned.
About J850 Elam and Alfred W. Brown from
Richmond, Ind., opened a general store on the south-
west corner of East Main cross street and College
Avenue, in the residence building now owned by Mr.
Thomas White. Later, John Kinzer, who built the
L. J. Small drug store building died, and the Brown
brothers moved their store into it. After a time they
sold to Kenyon & Randall, the latter soon leaving
the firm, and Mr. Kenyon later sold to Jonathan
Griffin and brother, whose stock was boug-ht by some
one at Westfield and removed there.
After this Alfred W, Brown returned and put in
a stock of g^eneral merchandise, and closed out in
April 1864. Then the building- stood vacant for some
time till Stanley & Symons started up with drugfs
and groceries. Mr. Stanley dying- the business was
conducted by the surviving- partner, Mr. Alpheus
Symons, or Symons & Baker. After this Thomas E.
Carey came in and the firm was Carey & Symons, and
after their time William S. Warren boug-ht the real
estate and he and David W. Kinzer conducted a drug-
and g-rocery store. Mr. Kinzer left the firm and War-
ren sold the real estate and drug- and g-rocery stock to
Eli Small, Sr., after whose death the real estate and
stock was taken by his son, L. J. Small, the present
A few years, ago Oden Hamar went into the drug-
business here in the building-, since destroyed by fire,
on the south side of the bank, but closed after a short
In March, 1864, Josiah E. King having purchased
the real estate at the southwest corner of Main and
Main Cross Streets opened up a general store and
stock of clothing-, doing- much business for a time. On
the sixth of April following-, the postoffice went into
this store in charge of Z. Warren as assistant post-
master, who was appointed postmaster and received
his commission in July following- from Montgomery
Blair, Postmaster General, during- Abraham Lincoln's
Mr. King closed out in January, 1869, Asel Dun-
ning- buying- the stock, but later went into the grocery
business in the building- just south of the bank, since
destroyed by fire, and upon his death his widow, Mrs.
Frances King continued the business for awhile. Mr.
Dunning-, after merchandising- awhile, sold a half in-
terest to Alfred T. Jessup, the firm being- Jessup &
Dunning. Then Sylvanus Comer boug-ht Mr. Dunning's
interest, chang-ing the firm to Jessup and Comer, and
the latter retiring left Mr, Jessup alone until Thomas
Harvey went in as partner, chang-ing- the firm to
Jessup & Harvey. Mr, Harvey leaving-, the firm after-
ward was Jessup & Warren, the latter buying- Mr.
Jessup's interest in September, 1885, and closing out
in 1898. Then L. J, Patty removing- his stock from
the opposite side of Main Street into the room, and
later selling a half interest to Thomas A. Painter, the
firm was Patty & Painter and afterwards Painter &
Barker, Mr, Barker leaving the firm, Mr, Painter
went to the Masonic Hall building- in 1906, and finally
selling- out to Irvin L. Kinzer, who was succeeded by
Spivey & Co., the present occupants.
In February, 1907, Carl E. Thomas commenced the
grocery business on the southwest corner of Main and
Main Cross Streets, and of late was succeeded by
Thomas H. Burkhart, the present occupant,
Before the Masonic Hall store room was occupied
by Mr. Painter, it had been used by Thomas W. Nutt,
hardware; Jason Leippard, shoes and furniture; after
which by the Citizens Bank; then by Alpheus Farlow,
and later by the Thomas Bros, the latter two firms
About 1871 or 1872, David W. Kinzer commenced
the g-eneral store in the building- occupied at present
by his son, W. A. Kinzer, taking- in Isaac W. Harold
as partner, the firm being Harold & Kinzer, but later
Sylvanus Carey going in as partner changed the firm
to Harold, Kinzer & Co. Carey and Harold g-oing out,
Mr. Kinzer was alone till being afflicted with rheuma-
tism, retired in favor of his son, W. A. Kinzer.
In the early fifties, Joseph Randall, Jr., leaving
the firm of Kenyon & Randall, and taking with him
some of the old stock of shoes, etc., which he had
traded for and took in with him, set up a little grocery
in a small building which Caleb Harvey had built for
a store room on the east side of South Main Street, at
the intersection of Vine Alley, in front of where the
Crag's residence now stands. It was attended by
his son-in-law, Amos P. Harvey, who also worked on
clocks and watches.
Along about this time Terry Templin had a small
grocery on the east side of South Main Street, on the
next lot south of Isaac J. Bales' residence. He took
out the ashes in a pine box, which he set in the back
room, and about one o'clock that night the building
went up in smoke and flame.
At present there are very many other business
enterprises, such as: The Carmel Lumber Yard,
Newspaper Office, g-rocer of W. A. Puckett, Bank,
Telephone System, Library, "Racket" Store, cement
block business. Hardware, Harness, Meat Market,
Natural Gas Company, Bakery, Creamery, Restaur-
The Tan- Yard
Soon after the town was established, Caleb Har-
vey started a tan-yard on the south side of what is
now West Main Cross Street, and extending- east from
the "big- ditch", with its pool, tanning- vats, etc., shed
for storing- and g-rinding- tan bark, another building-
for currying- and finishing room.
The vats were oblong-, sunken in the ground and
made water tig-ht of sawed oak about two inches
thick, their tops being flush with the top of the
They tanned cowhides, calf, sheep, dog-, or any
kind of skins, and made g-ood sole and upper leather,
coloring the latter black. The tan bark was of oak,
peeled off about four feet long while the sap was up.
In some cases nice white oaks were cut and peeled for
the bark, the bodies being left to decay or be burned.
The yard was later owned or operated by Isaac
W. Stanton and Bohan Harvey awhile, Mr. Stanton
making up some of the leather into harness. This
yard was owned by other parties, Franklin Hall and
others. Esquire Isaac Wrig-ht was running- it in 1855,
but not long- after that it went into Cleveland's "inoc-
About 1842 another business enterprise was en-
tered into by Caleb Harvey, the same man who
established the tan-yard, but it proved disastrous. It
was a pork packing house; a log building was filled
with pork up to the top. He bought the dressed hogs
at one dollar per hundred net; made no use of the
feet — any one could have all they wanted of them.
The heads were not used, they only trimming off parts
for the lard, and I forget whether they charged any-
thing for the back bones and ribs or not, perhaps a
Salt was then very high, had to be wagoned from
the Ohio River. It was at some times from eight to
ten dollars per barrel and it took a lot of it to salt
down so much pork. This bacon had to be wagoned
to Madison to find a market, and as the market price
there in the spring was but three cents per pound, it
would not pay transportation, and was consequently
almost a total loss, as little could be sold at home,
and the whole mass laid as packed, unsmoked, and
rotted. Any one wanting any for soap or lamp grease
could get it free. I will conclude this venture by
relating an incident connected therewith.
A man broug^ht in a singfle dressed hog" after nig"ht
and it was weig"hed and paid for without noticing- its
condition, which was all right except that it had not
been fattened any, and observing the fact next morn-
ing" the packer placed a rail extending" out from the
rail fence in front of the lot on which is John Rayl's
residence, that being" the packing" lot, and hung" the
poor hog" up there for a show. After hanging" several
days the seller's father carried it away.
The Big Ditch
The big ditch was dug" by Daniel Warren about
the year 1837 or 38, but no further north than the road,
which is now Main Cross Street, and lower down
were log"s and drifts so the water would back up very
The First Burial
The first interment in our cemetery was a woman
by the name of Huif , and a natural stone not far from
the walnut tree marks her long" resting" place. But
the first one from our town, or where the town was to
be, to break the solemn and ever since oft and sorrow-
ful traveled road, was Mrs. Miriam Phelps, a very
estimable old lady, and the mother of Martin Phelps.
She was a favorite of the writer, then a little boy,
who stood out in the yard at our home, gflued to the
ground, with eyes fixed upon the solemn, white
covered wag^on, the finest vehicle that could be ob-
tained, until it started with the corpse, and was out
Since then three hundred and four more from this
town have traveled over that road, "And there's more
The First House in Town
The Phelp's log" farm house, previously spoken
of, was the first one built where the town was later
laid out. An addition was later built to it on the
east, which when vacated was used by Mahlon Haines
for a wagon woodwork shop. The writer remembers
seeing" the g-reen chips lying" in the yard, and of being-
left there by his parents while they went to stay till
bed time with some other neighbors. They had a big
log" fire, and when the men folks and work hands came
in and were circled around before it, he became abashed
and commenced crying". The g"irls asked him what
was the matter and he meant to tell them that he was
bashful and wanted to g"o home, but did not know how
to express his trouble, and answered that he was
"ashamed of them." One of these g"irls a few years
ag"0 was wondering" if he was ashamed of them yet.
First Frame House
Having" described the first house in town, I will
now tell of the first frame building", which was a two
story built by Thomas Mills, standing" with end to the
street, and having' a veranda the whole length of the
south side, on lot number three, on North Main
Street, An accompanying' out house was built but
was smashed by a larg-e oak tree falling" on it.
The main house g-ot so far along as to have a roof
on the veranda, under which George Davis made fur-
niture, etc. Times were so hard that this building,
not even weatherboarded, stood and rotted till not
safe, was pulled down.
About this time the Mills brothers put up a frame
on the "Mills' lot" about east of where the William J.
Hawkin's estate barn now stands and it stood, a frame
only, till decaying" was pulled down.
The next frame built and finished was on lot
thirteen, North Main Street, by Thomas Mills, since
torn down. Next in 1838 or 1839, Caleb Harvey built
the two story frame, since removed to the northeast
corner ol South Main Street and Vine Alley, and
John West built the two story part of the one now
on the northwest corner of Main and Main Cross
About 1887 was the only hail storm in which the
hail stones were as larg^e as g'oose eg^g^s, horses pelted
by them ran g'alloping' around in a frenzy.
The first tomatoes ever g-rown in this vicinity
were in a bed about the year 1840 or 1841, on lot ten,
just about where Mr. Strattan's lunch counter stands.
They were merely curios to all except the family who
planted them. Neig^hbors put them on their mantels
or shelves, thinking' they were like a pig"'s tail, more
for ornament than use.
The first threshing" machine reaching- this vicinity
was the old style "ground hog^" machine with a
tumbling' shaft, and was run by horse power. It was
owned by Jacob Burnside. The sheaf band was cut
with a pocket knife, and a toothed cylinder pulled
the wheat in and threshed it all rig-ht but did not
separate the g'rain and chaff, which was afterward run
throug'h a fan mill, propelled by hand, to blow the
About the year 1842, a man afterwards a citizen
of this town, planned to extract one of his molar
teeth. Going' up stairs and tying" a cord to the tooth
and an iron wedg-e to the other end of the cord, threw
the wedg'e out of a window; he landed the tooth and it
was well for him that he had a larg'e strong' neck, for
he said it came so near breaking' his neck, he would
never do that way ag'ain.
When many of the dead oak trees were standing-,
and the g-round frozen hard a farmer cut some of them
down after nig'ht, and thinking' his neig-hbor made an
unnecessary complaint about disturbing- his sleep, cut
several nearly ready to fall, in a field adjoining' him,
and at the proper time that nig'ht cut one to awaken
him, then piling' broken limbs till he supposed him
asleep ag'ain, then down would come another tree, till
they were all felled, and his neighbor never com-
I will tell a cat tale. In the long agfo some
parents went from home, leaving- the children alone,
and they having- a grudge against the old cat, thoug-ht
that the opportunity to g-et rid of it had come. Not
knowing- how hard a cat is to kill, one held it up by
the hind leg-s while another struck it with a club, and
it jumped with a big meoiv, and ran under the house.
They were watched by their little sister, who so soon
as their parents returned, ran and met them and said:
"We killed the old cat and she didn't die!" That "let
the cat out of the wallet."
In those days a boy, who is yet living-, was sent
into the corn field to plant beans in the corn hills, and
after planting- awhile dumped and covered up the
whole lot in one hill, and told his mother they were
There were a couple of old people here, Jirah
Smith and wife, Avis, gfenerally spoken of as uncle
and aunt, and a little boy, Bennet Haines, whose
sister or half sister, Sarah Ann, was staying- with
them, was asked by another boy why he did so. This
question was a poser, and after studying a little,
said: "Well, 'Sare Ann' has been staying- there so
longf we are getting- to be a little kin."
Jirah Smith, mentioned above, was a Yankee and
one day a jocular farmer meeting- him at the store
asked him to play a "Yankee trick." "No," he re-
plied, but said he would swap horses with him. So
they repaired to the Smith residence to see his horse,
and g'oing' around to the back yard, he said: "There
he is." It was a wooden "shave horse" used to sit
astride, and to hold shing"les, etc., to be shaved with
a draw-knife! And that was the Yankee trick.
First Street Improvement
Once upon a time in the long" agfo, and in the nice
spring-time, enoug^h civic pride developed to cause a
spasmodic effort to improve Main Street, and Martin
Phelps came with his team and plowed g-utters on
each side, from North Street south to Water or
further. The other volunteers were John West,
Bohan Harvey, Isaac W. Stanton, William S. Warren,
the writer, and perhaps some others, each armed with
a shovel or spade and earth was cast to the center,
making- a little thrown up way. This was long- before
the pike road came through, which was in 1865, J.
Frank Davis having- the contract throug-h here, and the
g-round was in its natural condition, except what mud
holes had developed, and were filled by the supervisor
with beech brush which was near at hand, and on
which dirt was shoveled. In a few years all traces
of this g-rade disappeared.
Going to Quarterly Meeting
The Friends' Quarterly Meeting- was held at
White Lick before it was here, and was quite an
event with the young- folks. There being- no buggies
they went horse back, the g-irls mounted on side
saddles. A young- man would ride side by side with
his g-irl, and others would count it quite a diversion
to ride in between and "cut him out."
Fires in Carmcl
The first in town was the Terry Templin little
g-rocery previously mentioned. The second was John
W. Crew's Shoe Shop on the northeast corner of
South Main and Water Streets. The others, thoug-h
perhaps not quite in the rotation in which they
occurred, were the saw mill of John E. Buck, the saw
mill and drying- house of the Laycock Manufacturing-
Company, where the Brunson mill now stands.
In 1898 the residence of Mrs. Kesiah Roberts on
the west side of North Main Street, about where her
present one now stands, burned. Next the millinery
shop and nearby law ofiice of L. J. Patty burned,
supposedly from the g-as having been left burning-,
and comingf on too strong-.
The John Jeffries livery barn, on the morning- of
July 26, 1905, burned, taking- with it Joseph Hornbak-
er's blacksmith shop, M. L. Long-'s shoe shop, and Z.
Warren's lumber house and privy, and charring- and
scorching- Isaac N. Beeson's meat market and John C.
Stanton's barn. Heroic efforts of the bucket brigfade
kept it from spreading- further east. The fire started
in the hay mow. The Westfield Chemical Eng-ine
Company being telephoned for, came down flying- and
did efficient service.
The residence of Martin L. Long- on the west side
of North Main Street, where W. A Puckett's residence
now stands, was the next to burn, and caug-ht by a
kerosene lamp being- overturned. Another fire was
an out house near the old residence of Jonathan
Other minor fires which were exting-uished were:
Emmanuel Harold's residence, southeast corner of
South Main Street and Vine Alley; the Moffitt resi-
dence on the east side of North Main Street; Jona-
than Johnson's old residence; L. J. Patty's residence
building- on north side of East Main Cross Street; the
Hawkins store building- on the southwest corner of
Main and Main Cross Streets, occupied by Carl E.
Thomas at that time; a residence in the northwest
part of town, and September 13, 1910, Leander Brun-
son's saw mill roof. Sometime back of these last was
that of the middle room of the Bond Block, at night.
The floor caug-ht near the stove and a hole was burned
In 1884, the second story floor of the store build-
ing- on the southwest corner of Main and Main Cross
Streets, then occupied by Jessup & Warren, caught
fire at some unknown time from the stove pipe, but
after burning- awhile without a blaze, went out of its
On the first day of March, 1911, the residence of
Miles O. Cox took fire, burning- quite a hole throug-h
the roof, but it was exting-uished by the bucket
The First House Painted
The Crag^o residence building- on the northeast
corner of South Main Street and Vine Alley, orig-inally
standing further north on that lot, with the side to
the street, and which has since been reweather-
boarded, was the first painted house, occupied at the
time by the builder's widow, who kept a boarding"
house. It was much weather beaten and cost her
forty dollars to paint it nice and white, and with the
chimney tops painted red, it made quite an appear-
ance. The widow owner's name was Bathsheba
Harvey. The painter's name was William S. Warren.
John D» Hopkins and Joshua Coshat
These were two eccentric characters here in
former times, though not residents, yet making- fre-
quent visits. The first, the roving- "g-ood g-athering-"
preacher, who appeared to have been brig-ht at some
time, but his mind was out of balance. He traveled
afoot, and barefooted in warm weather, and was
known nearly everywhere. He was a large man of
pleasing, smiling nature. In cold weather he wore a
long- overcoat, made by himself of scraps of various
colors sewed tog-ether. He called it Joseph's coat.
Mr. Hopkins preached on the street and left
appointments to preach at long- intervals, and would
come up to time. In one case he set his time five
years, and it was all forgfotten, but he came promptly
to time. He sang- his songs, some of which he com-
posed himself, and would be given little contributions.
He was entertained through sympathy. During the
war he enlisted in the Seventeenth Indiana Regiment,
and made for himself a breast plate of a plow shear.
One day he notified them that he was going to a
certain post, and they let him go. The poor man
dropped out after a time and was supposed to be
The other character was of sound mind, but odd
and of a sponging disposition, and having immigrated
from North Carolina was acquainted with many here
who came from there and made periodical visits,
staying at each place till they tired of him. Some-
times he would bring as many as five young horses to
be kept, and was particular about his fare and
complained about so many not having their wheat
threshed, he was tired of eating corn bread. Coming
to our house once, he said: "Haven't you got your
wheat threshed yet?" At another time when he came
mother and father were away from home, and he told
sister what he wanted for dinner. He said: "I want
'flour' bread, ham meat and eggs fried, and coffee,"
all of which was fixed for him.
The people tired of Mr. Coshat, and we got rid of
him this way: There was one of our neighbors he
never visited, Coshat owing him an old debt made in
North Carolina. We knew this neig-hbor wished to see
him, and when Mr. Coshat came around ag-ain with
his retinue of colts, mother sent the writer over to
Barnaby Newby's to tell him Joshua Coshat had
come. Mr. Newby immediately came over to dun
him, and Coshat knew we had sent for him; and that
was the last time we ever saw old Joshua Coshat.
A Squirrel and Woodpecker Tale
Many years ago a man of this vicinity, since be-
coming a citizen of Carmel, and now not living, went
hunting and took his gun along. Spying a squirrel
on the side of a tree, he fired, killing it, and the bullet
glancing from the tree, struck and killed a red headed
woodpecker on another tree! Should a man have
made a business of hunting from the time of the build-
ing of the great Pyramid down to the digging of our
"big ditch", he probably would never have made such
Another hunting incident was that of a young
man with a fine rifle, steel barrel, curly maple stock,
ornamented with thirty pieces of sterling silver. He
was not much of a marksman, and meeting with his
first squirrel on the limbs of a tree, placed the already
cocked rifle on the limb of a bush and was in the act of
getting his eyes down to take sight when he accident-
ally pulled the trigger before taking sight, and lo!
and behold! the squirrel fell to the ground, kicking
till dead, and the young" man stood awhile amazed.
He hunted no more that day and went home with his
g-ame while his credit was g-ood as a marksman.
The First Suicide
Perhaps not far from 1840, the people were
shocked by hearing of the suicide of Mrs. Anna Bond,
wife of Ornon Bond, by hanging, being the first one
to go in this manner.
The Simeon Hawkins incident occurred about
1876. He was shot in the head at his home, in a shed
at the barn, and did not die for some weeks. He had
been at Indianapolis that day, and he said that a man
by the name of Jones followed him home and shot
him. Some thoug-ht it a case of suicide, but perhaps
no one will ever know this side of the resurrection.
Mr. Hawkins was genial and clever, an enterprising
citizen, and a kinder and more obliging man perhaps
could not be found.
Some time during the seventies, or eighties, the
suicides of Isom Wickersham, Noah Stafford, by
hanging, and that of Jesse Lancaster, by cutting his
throat with a pocket knife, occurred. Ill health was
supposed to be the cause in the latter case.
Then on the twentieth of May, 1898, was the
suicide of Martin Lanham, by drinking wood alcohol.
The last and recent case was that of Hiram
Minting, who hanged himself in his barn, on the 17th
of August, 1908. He had lost his wife sometime be-
fore, and I think he left a note saying- he was tired of
Shooting Incidents Not Fatal
Along in the sixties and seventies, there were
three cases of shooting, neither one fatal. The first
was that of Carey Harrison, who was supposed to be
a rebel sympathizer, and while preaching in the Hill
Church, was shot in the arm from an open window,
supposedly by some returned soldier, in 1863 or 1864
during the war.
The second case was in the seventies, when
Sylvanus Comer, who was in the covered bridge over
the river at Broad Ripple, on his way home from the
city after dark, was shot by a robber. The shot
nipped a little piece from the rim of his ear.
The third was that of some water melon tres-
passers in the Poplar Ridge settlement, who were
fired on from a shot gun.
The only one to chronicle was the double and
fatal shooting, which occurred in the John Jeffries
livery barn, on the eighth of June, 1900. The victims
being T. J. Johnson, an eccentric and defiant street
preacher, called "Cyclone" Johnson, and William
Frank Carey, the constable, who had arrested and
taken him to this place for trial before Esquire Collins
for some offense. In some manner a melee developed
and shooting commenced with the above results.
Mr. Johnson was considered by many as only an
adventurer, who among- other things did not look
askance at, or eschew, collections.
The first case of drowning in this vicinity was
that of Miss Harold, daughter of Samuel Harold, Sr,
She was drowned about 1840, while trying to ford
Cold Creek at the Wilkinson Ford, northeast of the
cemetery. She had been away working for some
family, and on Saturday started for home horseback,
meeting a swollen creek. No doubt, her joyful
anticipation of home caused her to run the risk of
trying to cross over. But thy stream. Cold Creek,
lay between her and the happiness of her home. She
ventured in a little too far down where the water was
deeper, and the horse swimming over, the empty
saddle gave the alarm. She could not be found then,
but was given up as drowned, and was not found for
three weeks, when she was found in a drift.
In 1842 or 1843 there was a case of near drowning
in Eagle Creek. My parents, returning horseback
from a meeting, got into deep water, mother dropping
the baby, which was carried under a log or drift, but
The next case was that of a Smith boy from this
vicinity who was drowned in the river below the
wag"on bridgfe at Broad Ripple about 1857. He was
the g-rand son of Jirah Smith. Joseph Lloyd, one of
our citizens, came so near drowning- in the same deep
water, that he was bobbing- under and his hat floating-
down stream, when William Pike swam in and rescued
The next case was in the sixties, when John
Barker, a young- man of Carmel, was drowned in
White River east of here while in swimming, probably
being- seized with cramps.
The fourth case of drowning- was that of Charles
Harvey, a young- man of Carmel and son of Henry
Harvey, the wag-on maker. It occurred in the sixties
perhaps and in the same place where the Barker boy
The fifth was the pathetic case of the drowning-
of Mrs. Mellie Hussey, wife of Frank Hussey, in the
river near Broad Ripple Park, in 1907. She g-ot into
deep water, sank and was broug-ht ashore after life
Other Accidents and Happenings
Sometime in the forties, in tearing- down our old
log- cabin, John Phelps, Jr., and another man were up
on corners tumbling- ofl" log-s, and the former was
thrown down along- with a log", but was not very
About this time occurred the death of Mrs. tJrsely
Lanham, wife of Thomas Lanham, near the Robert
Lancaster farm. She was in the g-arden g-athering-
cucumbers, when a limb from a dead beech tree fell
and struck her head. It was a pathetic case; so
sudden. Her children g-athered around crying-, "Oh,
my mother! Oh, my mother!"
Another accident, wonderful but not fatal, was
the case of a daughter of William Slater, perhaps
about 1845. She was riding- a young- horse on a road
through the woods, and was thrown, her head striking-
the spur roots of a beech tree, scattering- some of her
brains. She recovered, but her physician said she
must never go to school anymore.
In 1847 or 1848, Nathan Newby, residing- about
two miles southwest of Carmel, was badly hurt by his
horse falling on him. A g-athering- in his thigh ensued
and, after lingfering- a few weeks, he died.
There is one old citizen yet living- in Carmel who
in the past met with so many accidents, I will relate
them. The first was about 1834 when a little boy
sitting- barefoot on the clay hearth of the log: cabin
before a large log- fire, with the old cat in his lap,
when the top log- with its live coals rolled down upon
the side of one of his feet. His mother pulled his
foot from under the log-, leaving- some of the skin of
his foot adhering to the log-, and some live coals to
his feet. He said to his mother: "It's a fine thing it
did not roll on the old cat."
After this, in walking- near the edgfe of the floor
where it was lain only partly across the room of the
second story of a building-, and looking upward at
some object, he accidentally stepped off with one
foot, falling head foremost on the edge of an uprig-ht
barrel on the lower floor and cutting his head so his
skull bone could be seen, and leaving a pool of blood
on the floor. A few stitches broug-ht the g-ash to-
g-ether. Next he fell from a mulberry tree, and was
not much hurt. At another time he had his hand
burned in the flax fiasco previously related.
While yet a boy he stepped upon a rusty nail and
took cold in his foot and lay abed quite awhile.
Then in 1853, he ag-ain stepped upon a rusty nail,
causing quite a painful wound. In 1847 he was acci-
dentally shot in the hand with an iron pointed arrow
from a cross-bo w^ In 1853 a piece of timber flew out
from a twining lathe, striking him on the mouth and
breaking- a front tooth out.
In the late fifties, he was experimenting with an
empty two g-allon tin can, from which alcohol had
just been emptied. By holding- a match above it, the
alcohol adhering- to the gummy inside of the can
would catch and burn; then he held a match over it,
and lowered it slowly to see how far away it would
catch, not thinking- of the fact that sitting- on the
stove hearth it had become hot. A mass of flame
shot up to the ceiling, burning- his face, locks, mus-
tache, eyebrows and eyelashes ofl:. He rubbed his
face all over with flour. Wasn't he a pretty looking-
aspect? His wife was across the street and when she
came in she cried: "Moral — Don't monkey with a hot
In 1898 he melted a lot of scraps of solder in a
ladle on the cook stove, and the solder inadvertently
contained a cartridge. He was bending- over it after
the solder melted when the cartridg-e let g"o, scattering-
the solder all over the room, his spectacles saving-
his eyes. He was knocked down and run over by a
bug-g-y at two different times here, and was struck by
a street car in Indianapolis, and by an interurban car
here without being- hurt. Also, at one time, returning-
from the city, he was sitting- on g-oods piled above the
top of the wag-on bed, when the wheels struck an ob-
stacle as they were coming- down hill and he was
thrown forward to the g-round without being- hurt and
not even letting- g-o his hold on a bottle of Damar
Later than this he came so near being- run over by
a freig-ht eng-ine at our Monon Station, that before he
jumped from the track the cow catcher almost struck
him. The eng-ineer reversed the eng-ine, and Thomas
E. Carey shouted, "Look out!" either of which not
having- been done, he would have been struck. But
when a small boy he climbed to the top of the ladder
serving- for the stairway in the log- cabin and fell
throug-h, breaking- an arm — but it was the arm of his
mother's flax spinning- wheel!
Along- about the seventies, Nancy J. West, wife
of Thomas "West, was fatally burned by her clothing'
g-etting" afire in some manner. She lingered awhile
About 1844, a boy on the farm now owned by
Jonathan Johnson, was chopping the top of a stump
when the ax g"lancing" struck his nephew, William
Clampitt, cutting- a g"ash in his cheek, next to his
In 1853, Albert K. Warren, then about three years
old, in some manner broke his left arm, and before it
g^ot entirely well, fell from a log" breaking" it over
agfain. Then about 1868, when fifteen years old, he
was thrown from a colt, breaking his other arm and
g^angrene setting in, it turned black and his physician
said he would not live over forty-eig-ht hours, but he
is living" yet. His arm rotted off at his shoulder joint,
where there was for awhile but a little lig"ament con-
necting" it with his body, which they cut off, freeing"
him from the arm. The mortification g"ot to his
shoulder blade, which protruded so the doctor had to
saw a piece of it off in order for the place to heal,
which it finally did, leaving" him with but his left arm,
and it not quite straig"ht, having" been twice broken.
When well, he paid attention to his education, be-
coming" a gfood pensman, and later g"raduating" at
Purdue University, after which his parents removed
to Zionsville, and he was elected surveyor of Boone
County two terms.
After this he went to California, where he was
employed as surveyor for a larg-e land irrig-ating
company at a g"ood salary and later was promoted to
office work. He is now married and has an interest-
ing- family, and is in g^ood circumstances financially.
During- the time when a blacksmith shop stood on
the Nicholas Quick residence lot, a man wanting- a
piece of g-as pipe bent to a curve, tamped it full of as
dry dirt as he could g-et, driving- wooden plugfs in the
ends, sent it to that shop for the smith to heat and
bend, and sending- a boy after it, he came back report-
ing- that it shot! There being moisture enoug-h to
g-enerate steam, it bursted the pipe, and the shop was
filled with dust. Nobody was hurt, but the smith's
face turned a little pale.
Elwood Rayl, west of Carmel, had a hand torn off
or mashed, by a sorg-hum mill, so that it had to be
amputated, perhaps in the nineties.
About 1866, Thomas Hamar met his death near
Pleasant Grove, being- caug-ht between his wag-on and
Perhaps at a later date than the above, Jesse
Newby, son of Jacob Newby, was killed by a saw log-
rolling- over him in the "big- woods" north of Carmel.
Sometime in the sixties. Dr. L. S. Campbell was
kicked by his horse, while out on the road, so badly
that he lay in bed for some time.
In the sixties or seventies, Kearney Cotton, a
colored man, while down in a well on the farm of
Henry Harold, had a kettle of dirt drop down striking-
him on the head, but his skull bone was too thick to
Perhaps in the seventies or eig-hties William
Huffman was badly hurt by being" run over by a
reaper, making some cuts.
In 1910 Gilbert Gray, while sojourning in the
West, was kicked by a g'un, breaking his collar bone.
In the early seventies William Hamar, son of James
Hamar, living" near Pleasant Grove, accidentally shot
himself fatally. He was rabbit hunting" and in climb-
ing a rail fence let the hammer of his shot gun strike
Coral E. Campbell, son of Thomas H. Campbell,
was killed in the "big" woods" north of Carmel, about
1883 or 1884. In cutting" a tree, a limb fell striking"
his head, thoug-h I believe he lingered a few days.
At John E. Buck's saw mill, while running" here,
Hiram Minting" was crippled by being" crowded by a
A few years ag-o, Albert Moffitt, a farmer in the
southeast settlement, met his death by being thrown
from his wag"on.
Jacob C. Green having felled a poplar tree near
old town run, southwest, and holding" the ax on his
arm, a limb broken from another tree fell striking" the
ax handle, throwing" the ax ag"ainst his leg" and cutting"
quite a g"ash.
In the seventies Daniel Warren, Jr., was kicked
by a horse and rendered unconscious for awhile.
Sometime during- the war, Sylvanus Carey had a
leg" broken by a saw log- rolling- from the wagon when
about two miles south of Carmel.
At an early date a boy in the settlement west
pinched the pith out of a piece of green alder and
had his face over it while pouring- it full of melted
lead; it shot and he was badly burned.
In April, 1910, Nelson Wise had his hand hurt by
some kind of machinery.
October 15, 1910, Mr. Ihndris was kicked by a
colt at the time of our horse show.
On the 17th of March, 1910, the two following-
accidents occurred: Fred Brown had two fingers
torn off while adjusting a seed sower and Artie Myers
had a hand mang-led while helping- to manipulate a
cross cut saw.
In January, 1910, Bert Parsley, living- on one of
the Kinzer farms, was severely kicked by a horse,
which knocked him a distance of some feet.
In the early part of 1911 John Binford had both
ankles hurt by the falling- of a scaffold on which he
Mr. Georg-e St. Clair, living on the Daniel Warren
fruit farm, had a leg- broken in 1910, when a cherry
log-, which was sawed off, rolled upon it.
Lightning Strokes in Carmel
Sometime in the seventies the log" residence of
Jacob Newb3^ on the north side of West Main Cross
Street, east of the William Peele residence, was
struck by a strong charge of lig'htning' during- a very
hard rain, The lightning entered a south window up
stairs, going north and downward to the cook stove
in the kitchen, where Mr. Newby's son, Job, was
sitting-, striking- him and tearing- off a shoe and sock,
and leaving- the latter fast, cramped in the crack of a
board of the hard ash flooring- which it made in going-
throug-h the floor to the ground. The boy recoved.
Lig-htning- struck our present Hig-h School Build-
ing not long- after its completion, but did not do very
A few years ago the front part of the hardware
building- of Newlin & Thomas, now occupied by O. W.
Nutt, was struck twice in the same place; thus dis-
proving the saying- that "Lig-htning- never strikes
twice in the same place."
About 1905 lightning- came down a tall shade tree
at the residence of the writer, on lot ten. West Main
Cross Street, a part leaping- to a nearby kitchen stove
flue, ran down the pipe to the stove and away to the
ground, down the g-as pipe. It was a terrific charg-e,
and sounded like a mag-azine of dynamite had ex-
ploded. The main part of it went to the lig-htningf
rod, directly under which myself and wife were; the
latter being" upstairs and near the rod, and neither
one felt any effect. This shows the efficiency of
lig'htning' rods, if properly put up, and connected
with the moist g-round. The fact that a heavy charg-e
passed over the rod was evidenced by some shing-les
being- torn off where it made a bend to reach another
roof. The stove pipe was bursted, and an odor like
burnt powder pervaded the room. The rod was too
far away to carry away the whole charg-e which came
down the tree.
Great Wreck and Other Railroad
On the morning- of January 27th, 1890, at 7:50
o'clock occurred the great wreck on the Monon, at
the trestle bridg-e over the Wilkinson Run, about a
half mile north of Carmel. The bridg-e has since been
replaced by a fill. The train consisted of the eng-ine
and tender, combination bag-g-ag-e and smoking- car,
two coaches and a Pullman sleeper and was in charg-e
of Abel C. Ang-le, conductor, and Thomas Kline,
eng-ineer, and was running- south bound at the rate of
thirty miles an hour. The g-round being- frozen and
the rails on the convex side of the curve needing-
raising-, it was done by "shimes" being- placed under
A rail was turned over on that side of the track,
derailing- some part of the train, which by its momen-
tum carried it over the ties on the trestle work,
tearing- up the track, and breaking- down tlie trestle.
The sleeper turned over, and slid down the g"rade
just at the bridge, g-rinding a rabbit to pieces. The
two coaches were precipitated, the ladies' coach into
the run on the east side aud almost totally destroyed
by fire from the stove; the other on the west side.
The bag-g-age car turned over a little further south
on the west side. The engine kept the track and
passed on further south than the bag-gage car, carry-
ing- the tender, which turned on its side, wrenching-
the two near wheels of the engine off the track and it
stopped. The dead were Mrs. Nettie Eubanks, of
Broad Ripple, age 36 years; Charles O. Deming-, ag-e
55 years, of Frankfort, Ind., who ling-ered awhile here
at John A. Haines'; Miss Mary E. Hoover, ag-e 24
years, of Horton, Ind.; Miss Hattie Hensley, ag-e 20
years, of Cyclone, Ind.; Madg-e and Lola Oldham, ag-es
8 and 6 years, of Sheridan, Ind. The mother of these
children was pretty badly hurt, and several other
persons to some extent.
When the Monon Railroad Company had finished
laying its rails throug-h Carmel in 1882, a party of our
citizens. Dr. McShane, Elwood E. Hains, William W.
Warren and some others had taken a small car used
for moving- rails in track laying-, north of the "big-
cut," and were on it running- back this way on the
down gfrade, it struck a spike someone had driven
between rails at a joint, after the car had passed up.
The car, upon striking- the spike, commenced turning-
over forward throwing some of them out who had
presence of mind enoug-h to catch and prevent it from
deadfalling- the whole party.
Soon after the Monon trains commenced running-,
William Hutton, in driving across the track at the
Main Cross Street crossing, with his one horse wagon,
was thrown from his wagon, which was struck by a
fast train and knocked to pieces and scattered along
the track north. His horse being freed ran on and
Mr. Hutton not being hurt very much recovered in a
Not long after the above incident John Kemp
was struck by an engine or car, near our Monon
station, but was not much hurt.
Later Henry Metsker, engineer on a freight
engine, was killed a few miles south, by his engine
being derailed by striking a bull on the track. After
this, happened the near accident at the Monon station
described on a previous page.
On the night of January 30th 1899; Harry Mor-
ford's buggy was struck by a fast southbound train,
at the Monon crossing on West Main Cross Street,
and torn to pieces, his horse killed, and himself left
unconscious, his legs being frozen when he was found
next morning. He was taken to J. W. Morrow's and
died that evening.
At a date not long after the Monon trains com-
menced running, a freight running too fast, left the
rails just south of where the "great wreck'' occurred,
but no one was hurt.
On the nig-ht of February 15th, 1906, where the
interurban track crosses the road near the cemetery,
north of Carmel, Frank Cook a former citizen, and
another man attempted to cross the track in a covered
hack, not seeing- and perhaps not hearing- the car
which demolished their wagon, killing- them both, and
I think their team also.
The next accident was at West Main Cross Street
crossing of the Monon, the same place where that of
Hutton and Morford occurred. It was that of our
citizen, Henry W. Henley, and wife, on the morning-
of March 2nd, 1906. They had started in a bug-gy to
visit some of their children in the Poplar Ridg-e
settlement, and when crossing- the track, a Monon
fast train, I think south bound, struck their bugg-y,
killings them both and destroying- the bug-g-y, but I
believe the horse escaped. They had anticipated
seeing- their children, but alas! Who knows his fate?
Whether he shall meet his death by railroad accident,
disease, or be stricken down by the flash of heaven!
In 1907 a citizen of Carmel was walking- south-
ward on the east side of the interurban right of way,
north of O. W. Nutt's hardware store, intending- to
cross the track, but just before, and coming- to a
catch basin of the sewer and g-etting- down to see if
water was running- in it, forgot the dang-er of cars and
suddenly started to cross the track just in front of a
north bound car, and was knocked heels over head on
a pile of lumber rubbish. The car stopped, the motor-
man and conductor came out, the latter with memo-
randum book and pencil, and he was told by the
victim to go along-, that he was not hurt and would
make no claim ag-ainst the Company. He never
found out where the car stuck him.
In June 1908, William E. Venable, of Carmel, an
employe of the I. U. Traction Company, fell from the
top of a car, severely injuring- his back, and being
otherwise bruised up by the breaking of a trolley he
had hold of. He claimed the trolley was weakened by
being already cracked where it broke off. I believe
this occurred at Tipton.
On October 26th, 1910, an unknown man was
struck by an interurban car near the cemetery, and
bruised up some. On March 17th, 1910, Frank
Rutherford, of Carmel, was struck by an interurban
car breaking both legs. Sometime in the nineties a
Monon locomotive turned over on its side on the
switch opposite the William Peele residence. There
were no fatalities.
The Great Natural Gas Explosion
The natural gas explosion in the Bond Block in
Carmel happened March 31st, 1904. There were three
adjoining buildings, and the furthest west had just
been fixed up for a barber shop for the Mann boys and
their stove plumbed for gas. It was not known that
a connected pipe extending under the middle building
to where a stove had set in the work part of Mr.
Bond's furniture shop had been left open at that
point. The escaping gas had filled the under floor
spaces of all three buildingfs and the rooms to some
extent, when Mr. Mann struck a match to lig"ht the
gas in his stove, let off the whole explosion, throwing"
shattered glass from all three buildings on the side-
walk and to the middle of the street, and his face was
cut by ilying pieces.
Mr. Bond in the adjoining and middle room was
thrown up against the ceiling, one of his legs broken
and he otherwise bruised up. In this same room a
chair was thrown up against the ceiling with such
force that one of the rounds penetrated a ceiling
board and was left sticking there.
The third and east room was the grocery store of
Alpheus Parlow. The stove was knocked down, up-
setting the fire upon the floor, but it was extinguished.
It was in this room that Miss Bessie Wickersham,
lady clerk, not much hurt, was dragged out through a
window. The explosion made quite a mix-up in this
room, the floor was torn up and on the ground were
onion sets, cranberries, etc., in confusion, and broken
glassware and dishes. The stuff was removed, the
floor relaid and the other goods straightened up. Mr.
Farlow remained in this room for some time, till
removing to the room of the Masonic Building, after
which he died, and his stock was purchased by the
The whole three buildings of the Bond Block were
condemned by the Town Board, and it, along with the
ground, was sold to Allen Myers, who tore down two
of the worst damag"ed, but the third is still standing-
at this writing-. The next building east is the present
Post Office, and the force of the explosion blew the
g"lass from a window of it into the room, and threw
down and smashed an oil lamp, which might have
caused a conflag^ration had it been after nig-ht and
The rails on the Monon were laid throug^h Carmel
and the first eng^ine and cars passed through on the
21st of September, 1882, laying- track.
The first electric car on the I. U. T. Company's
line passed throug-h Carmel about six o'clock in the
evening- of October 30, 1903.
First Natural Gas Well
Gas was struck eig-ht feet in Trenton Rock, in the
first well, which was east of the Follett Flouring-
Mill, February 16th, 1888. Here the limestone lay 96
feet from the surface. The second well, on the
William Kinzer farm a little east of Mrs. Rosanna
Phelps' residence, was drilled into g-as November
12th, 1888. The depth to limestone rock was 124 feet,
and throug-h both limestone and shale 830 feet, and
into Trenton Rock 29 feet, making the whole total
depth 983 feet, striking- salt water. This well was
not very good.
In the third well g-as was struck January 31st,
1891, throug-h limestone and shale 797 feet, Trenton
Rock 10 feet, total depth 807 feet, and was a fairly
g-ood well. Since the above three, very many in
diverse places have been drilled.
Justices of the Peace
The justices from tirst to present, as memory-
serves, were Esquire Wheeler, Samuel Campbell,
Thomas Harvey, John West, of Carmel, Nelson Power,
Isaac Wrig-ht, Isaac W. Stanton, the latter two in
Carmel, T. J. Appleg^ate, Jonah Fertig-, Pleasant
Nance, David W. Patty, Levi J. Small, Allison Ballard,
Riley Craven, the latter four in Carmel, and John R.
Collins, of Poplar Ridge.
Following" the bombardment of Fort Sumpter and
when the brave and patriotic boys of this brave land
offered themselves upon their country's altar to up-
hold the "Star Spang-led Banner" and flag- of the free
faster than they could be armed, this vicinity sent a
g-oodly number, and Carmel was not a whit behind in
patriotism and sacrifice, being represented by D. W.
Patty, Isaac W. Stanton, John F. Nutt, Jasper Har-
ris, Isaac N. Beeson, Sr. , Thomas W. Patty, William
Pike, William J. Hawkins, Henry H. Harvey, Frank
A. Hawkins, David M. Connell, Shubel Hedgecock,
Patrick Perkins, Clark Sheets, James Miller, Jack
Crews, Elam Crews, Joseph Crews, George Crews,
John W. Rayl, Jr., William P. Rayl, ElamL. Roberts,
Asbury Anderson, Isaac Booth, Joseph Lloyd, Samuel
Carey, James M. Hanes, William Langston, Joseph
Keene, Samuel McQuarter, Henry Humes, Hamilton
Bowers, Trav. Bowers and Enos Haines.
While in service D. W. Patty and J. W. Nutt of
the Fifth Indiana Cavalry were taken prisoners and
incarcerated in grim Andersonville, all of whose
horrors have not yet been told, among- which was the
"dead line," thirst, starvation, disease and other
cruelties; but with their inherited hardihood they sur-
vived it, and after coming: home Mr. Patty was elected
Sheriff of Hamilton County and Mr. Nutt was later
Thomas W. Patty had one leg- shot off by
a cannon ball or shell at Missionary Ridg-e, but
survived. Prank A. Hawkins was thougfht to be
mortally wounded at the battle of Gettysburg- and lay
all nigfht on the ground near a little stream. It rained
and he came near drowning- but survived, and was
elected Clerk of the Court of Hamilton County, Ind.
William Pike was killed in the battle of Pea
Ridg-e, Arkansas. David M. Connell was shot by the
enemy while in detail service.
The following- soldiers were from this vicinity:
Frank Hall, Wallace Hall, John Hall, J. W. Nutt,
Josiah S. Nutt, Sylvester Jessup, William Hunt,
Georg-e Ellis, W. Frank McShane, Howell T. Eskew,
William Harold, Sr., William H. Thomas, Isaac J.
Bales, Gilbert Gray, David Stewart, Allen F. Harold,
Henry Harvey, Sr., Seth J. Green, Eli Green, Jacob
C. Green, Isaac J. Green, Joseph Julian, Nathan
Stanley, John Hussey, Alex. Gray, Frank Hinshaw,
Samuel Wilson, Zadok Carey, Jonathan Carey, Henry
Hinshaw, James Parley, Thomas Parley, Lewis
Parley, George West, Jr., Henry Michener, Samuel
Michener, Hiram Rooker, James Richardson, Henry
Richardson, Kin. Rooker, Dr. J. I. Rooker, Perry
Rooker, J. A. Wise, William Wise and Pulaski Eller.
Of the above, Sylvester Jessup was disemboweled
in some battle; William Hunt was wounded, and Seth
J. Green scalded in the Sultana disaster.
Besides the Andersonville prisoners mentioned
above, Carmel has another soldier, Seth J. Green,
who served a time in a confederate prison in Alabama,
and who was homeward bound on the ill fated steamer.
Sultana, at the time of the explosion. He was thrown
into the water with one side of his neck badly scalded.
Being- a gfood swimmer, he swam till he came to a
swingfing- branch of a bush, to which he held till
morning-, when he was picked up by a rescue boat.
Carmel has another citizen, seventy-nine years
old, who has never eaten an oyster, nor tasted a bit
of ice-cream, and who has not drank or used any milk
or cream, or eaten any butter, cheese, beef, veal or
mutton for sixty-nine years, and is yet carrying a
pocket knife without losing for forty-seven years and
is still using the excellent razor, which he bought
sixty years ago, but which has since been hollow-
Carmel has been g-iven as the home of three
men who have been mentioned as "Who's Who" in
America: Frank Booth, Dr. Prank Brown and Dr.
Elwood C. Perisho.
Our first newspaper, "The Carmel Sig^nal," was
first issued October 13th, 1889, by L. J. Patty and L. J.
Small, but after a time Mr. Patty dropped out and it
was edited and published by L. J. Small, and later by
Ed E. Small, Vern Patty, Georg-e Bowen and Hal
Small, each had charg-e of it, but the day of discon-
tinuance arrived Aug-ust 10th, 1893.
After this another was published for a short time
by "Shorty" from Tipton I think called "The Carmel
Register." Later commenced the "Carmel Star" by
Verne Patty, and now we have the "Carmel Stan-
dard," published by Roberts and Patty, which, let us
hope, may be long" continued.
This list from memory will not include all. The
first by remembrance was Thomas Charles, then
Jonathan Evans, Cyrus Cook, Charles Lane, the latter
about 1838, Georg-e Davis, Thomas Symons two terms
about 1843-4, Miss Anna Melissa Burnside two terms
about 1844-5, James G. Small two terms, Silas Draper
about 1847, Nathan H. Mills two terms about 1850,
Isaac W. Harold, Calvin W. Cook, Benjamin Albert-
son, Zenas Carey, William W. Chappell, Isaac Cox,
Miss Rebecca Trueblood, Cyrus N. Hunt, Nathan R.
Morrow, Elbert Harold, Miss Sallie Clark, John F.
Haines, Irvin Stanley, David M. Wells and George W.
Scott. The above list runs but a little past the latter
days of the old Carmel Academy, which has been torn
Below is a list of the physicians of Bethlehem,
now Carmel, from remembrance — some have been for-
gotten. Early there were women who knew of many
remedies and preserA^^ed many kinds of herbs, two
principal ones being Mrs. Charlotte Phelps and Mrs.
Judith Cook. Then Jonathan Carey was a doctor to
some extent, and also Nathan Harold.
In case of bad cuts Nathan Hawkins would be
sent for to glue up the wound. Later we had Joseph
Bond, a steam doctor.
A few regular physicians came and went, whose
names are not remembered. Then Dr. Woodyard
located. Perhaps the next were the two Vickrys,
one of which later was a banker at Tipton. Then Dr.
Hamilton located, after whom were Drs. L. S.
Campbell, S. C. Dove, J. S. Losey, J. T. McShane,
Daniel Carey, a younger Dr. Carey, Dr. Hunt, Jas. I.
Rooker, C. W. Cook, Dr. Sutphen, George Kane, Dr.
Baker, Wm. Cain, Zenas Carey, Milton Carey, Dr.
Woodard, Dr. Abernathy, N. G. Harold, Dr. James,
Dr. Leavens, C. W. Mendenhall, Dr. Royer, K. C.
Hershey in 1892, F. C. Hershey in 1894, and Dr. Cooper
I will g"ive a list of the ministers of the M. E.
church as near as memory serves.
The first was Rev. Kitchen, then the Revs.
Thomas Colclazer in 1855, Eli Ramel, Wm. Anderson,
J. S. McCarty, Piper, McMahin, Bowers in the sixties,
Harrison, Redding-, Georg-e Havens, Martin, Oden,
Cain, Parr, F. A. Fish, Reed, Howard, E. A.
McClintock, Holdstock, A. E. Sarah, Hornaday,
Richey, C. W. Wilkinson, and M. L. Pancher the
The first minister of the Friends Church was
Samuel Stafford, and the first recorded minister was
Asaph Hiatt in 1849, and since, Elizabeth Reynolds,
Isaac Roberts, Amos Kenworthy, Miss Miers, Mrs.
Sallie King- and Mr. McFarland, have officiated down
to the present one, the Rev. Willis Bond.
The Wesleyans have a church here, but I believe
do not have a minister stationed here-
In addition to the Tanyard, and pork packing-
business heretofore described, Thomas Lig-htfoot was
our g-unsmith and later Gideon Newby.
Wool and flax spinning- wheels, and reels were
staple articles in the early days, and about 1843
William S. Warren opened up a shop for their manu-
facture, on the southwest corner of Main and North
Streets, but soon after 1849 they went into decline,
and he drifted into other business.
The first cabinet work was done by Georg^e Davis
some by Thomas Mills, then Wm. S. Warren, Calvin
Bond, Z. Warren, Nutt brothers, and J. M. Nutt.
About 1840 Thomas Hazel made furniture in the
The wagon woodwork men were Mahlon Haines,
the Patty and Kane boys, Henry Harvey, Sr., and
later the Hornbakers, Mr. Klice and others.
About 1853 Simeon Hawkins carried on a reg'ular
carriagfe and wag^on shop near where Mahlon Day's
residence stands and about 1855 removed the shop to
about where the Friends Church now stands. Later
it was used by Carey and Roberts for their grist mill,
then by Carey and Dixon for the same, after which it
was torn down or moved away to make room for the
church. About 1863 Wm. H. Hedg-ecock carried on a
regnlar carriag^e and wag"on shop in the building at
the southwest corner of Main and Main Cross Streets,
doing his own ironing in a shop on the same lot.
The Tile Factory
About 1857 Simeon Hawkins operated a tile
factory in the building- of the present Jeffries' livery
barn, which has since been conducted by various
other parties for several years.
A shing-le factory for making- cut shing-les was
operated in the Elliot settlement by Mr. Howell
Thomas from about 1854 to 1861, doing- much business.
In the forties, Stephen Macy made tinware in the
Poplar Ridg-e settlement, but the first tin shop in Car-
mel was opened up in the Small building- on East
Main Cross Street by Mr. Alonzo Owen after the
war and later William P. Hiatt and Larkin Hines
did tin work. Now the Hawkins Construction Com-
pany does building-, tin and g-alvanized iron work.
Our first carpenters were Thomas Mills, John
West and Joseph W. Macy. Of late various persons
have been engfaged in cement block manufacturing-.
The canning- factory was established here in 1909.
Wm. S. Warren was the first house painter and paper
hang-er in the villag-e.
The first blacksmith in the vicinity was Barnaby
Newby, one-half mile west, and the second that of
John Hunt about that far east.
The first shop in town was that of Franklin Hunt,
assisted by Martin Phelps. When all was ready for
work, Mr, Hunt said: "Now, let's make a Jew's harp
so we can say that was the first thingf made on an
anvil in Bethlehem," and they made it. The next
smith was Moses Puckett on the John W. Rayl resi-
dence lot in 1844; then there were Enos Haines,
Joseph P. Cook with a fine shop on the Small Drugf
Store lot, and afterward used for a cooper shop by
Then the next smith was Richard Georg-e, followed
by Joseph Helcher about 1856, John Patty Sr., Isaac
W. Patty, Joab Parsley, Isaac Roberts 1863, Isaac
Booth, David M. Connel, Samuel Vare, John A. Haines,
David Stewart, Albert A. Haines, Enoch Roberts, Eli
Binford, William M. Harold, Mahlon Cook, Wilford
Maple, Sewell Green, Joseph Hornbaker, John Jef-
fries' different smiths, Wm. D. Stone, Mr. Ziliox, B. P.
Akers, Mr. Robbins, down to the present ones.
Among"st the staple articles smiths made were
pot trammels, cranes, S hooks, pot hooks, shovels
and tongs, dog" irons, cow bells, log" chains, mattocks,
grub and planter's hoes. A mattock was not very
easy to make and one of the first smiths was hammer-
ing" an odd shaped piece of iron, when a neighbor
asked what he was making", he said, "I am trying to
make a mattock, but when I g-et it done maybe it will
be a dog" iron."
The smiths in early times made horse shoes and
nails from whatever iron they happened to have, old
wagfon tire or flat bar of any kind, "drawing- it out."
They made their own coal, charcoal, burning big" coal
kilns rig-ht in the street.
About our first shoemaker was Georg^e Gibson in
his log" cabin residence a little west of John Jeffries'
residence. Then Jesse Georg"e, John W. Crews,
Benjamin Harold, the latter working" in the country,
Warren Brooks, John Swaim, John Florer, M. L.
Long", Harry Bartholomew, Wm. P. Hiatt, Mr. Gunkel,
Larkin Hines, S. A. Marlmee, down to J. C. Cross.
Joseph Wilson was perhaps our first harness
maker, and later I. W. Stanton, Frank Wrig"ht, Henry
L. Georg"e, Alfred W. Comer, B. F. Watkins, Riley
Craven, R. L. Georg"e, down to Al Cross.
Our first sash maker was Asaph Hiatt in the
country north. Later, here in the town, were Eli
Small, Sr., and Josiah Hiatt,
William Frost was our tailor in the forties, and
later turned dentist. A Mr. Patterson tailored here
Jacob Green, Sr., and sons, Joseph and John,
and Nathan Hawkins were first coopers, but after
them Thomas Mills, James Stanton and Timothy
Smith made barrels, tubs, etc.
The cases of burg^lary of business houses into
which entrance was grained were six, one being the
store of Elijah King- in which case considerable goods
were taken, and some of which were afterwards found
in corn shocks and other places. J. E. King's store
was entered after this, when some clothing, and
change left in the money drawers of the store, and
that of the Post Office, which was in the same build-
ing, were taken.
L. J. Small's drug store was entered and a con-
siderable lot of jewelry taken. The store of D. W.
Kinzer was entered by burglars but they were scared
off without booty I believe. The Citizen's Bank was
entered but they failed to get into the safe. W. A.
Puckett's Grocery Store was burglarized a few years
ago, but not much taken.
Then there were two cases of attempted burcflary
in which they were not successful in entering^, one of
the drug" store, the other of the store of Z. Warren.
Birds of Early Times
I now wish to forg"ive the black birds for taking"
up the corn, and any other incidents previously
referred to, including- the episode from the tree top.
In early times birds were much more numerous
than now, and upon entering- the leafy shaded woods
in the springf or summer, one would be charmed by
their songfs. There was one species which repeated
at intervals a musical and long- drawn out phrase
which seemed to be E-phraim cit-it-it-te, emphasizing-
the first E.
Then as Mr. Woollen says, "The flicker with his
flick-ah, flick-ah;" the goldfinch with "per-chic-o-vee,
per-chic-o-vee, per-di-ta, per-di-ta, sweet, sweet;"
the oriole with what seems to say, "come to me,
dearie; come to me, dearie" were heard in the
wildwood. Mr. Woollen notes a case in which the male
was singing- his song-, and soon after, his dearie, the
female bird, came.
The woodpecker says, "Bruce, Bruce," but the
quail says it's "Bob White, Bob White."
A little g-irl, disconsolate because her big- sister
Susan, whom she called "Tu-ie" had removed, told
her mother the little birds say "Tu-ie, Tu-ie,"
Observe the little torn tit, the beautiful red bird,
and the humming- bird, the latter moving- its wing-s
with such inconceivable velocity. There is one
species of birds we mig-ht call lazy. It is the cow
bird, which lays its eg-g-s in the nest of some other
species, thus avoiding- the tedium of sitting upon
them. Isn't it sharp!
There are many common thing-s upon which we
do not properly reflect, birds not being- an exception.
Birds of mig-ration return north in flocks of all
males first and then separate, distributing- themselves
so that only one or two are left in a locality and sing-
their songs of praise, awaiting- the arrival of the
females, when they mate and build their nests. In
this instinct of distribution we see the desig-n of an
Observe the robin which likes to build its nest
near human habitations, see how securelj'^ it cements
its nest to the foundation as a security against storms
and how like those of others the inside of its nest is
as true a circle as if scribed by a human architect.
Ask a little bird how he makes them so round and
true and he will not tell you, but if he could talk he
could say, "I sit down in it, and move round and
round, truing- and smoothing- it with my breast."
"O, little bird, little bird, who taug-ht thee this?"
The robin sings his plaintiff song- before g-oing-
to roost, then selects a limb and putting- his head
under his wing- trusts to his Creator for safety till the
morn, when he ag-ain sing-s his ditty of praise.
Solomon says: "Go to the ant, thou slug-g-ard,
consider her ways, and be wise," and we might say,
"Go to the little robin and learn to be worshipful."
O, little birds, who put these song-s in your
mouths, and O, little boys, how can you bear to kill
or rob the nests of these innocent and happy little
A boy throws a stone and kills a little warbler,
which was created by an Almighty Hand, and it falls
to the ground, never having committed any sin, or
done the boy any harm in its life, and has taken its
last flight, and sang its last song and its fall, with the
identity of its slayer, will be noted. There it lies
limpid, and all the talent and philosophy of all the
doctors and scientific men of the world, with command
of the wealth of a thousand Rockefellers or Pierpont
Morgans, could not put the life back into this little
In this connection I will relate the story of a
little boy and a bird, which happened very many
years ago. An American Missionary to Ceylon by
the name of Winslow had a son, little Charles L.
Winslow, who while there in that sunny land, the
home of the cinnamon and palm, took a great liking
to the native birds at their home, and after returning
to America, he took sick and died. While lying a
corpse a strange bird came and lingered near looking
so like the native birds of their tropical home that
great notice was taken of the circumstance, and a
poet wrote some beautiful and pathetic lines in
regard to it, the heading- and first four lines being- all
in remembrance. They were:
CHARLES L. WINSLOW
A bird came o'er the ocean,
From the far off tropic isles.
Where fanned by the palm tree's motion,
Perennial summer smiles.
Little boys and girls, feed the little birds which
frequent your homes.
Apostrophe to Early Days
Before giving a list of the dead of Bethlehem-
Carmel, and another of the old pioneers of the vicin"
ity, to close this history, I wish by way of illustration
of earlier times, to revert to the interesting days of
youth, the morning of life, when all around seemed so
beautiful and fresh, and when" in the wild-wood hunt-
ing ginseng, the wild bees sucking honey from wild
rose flowers, the numerous birds were full of songs,
the owl would hoot, the pheasant beat, and perchance
a deer rudely disturbed would jump up from its rest-
ing place and run for life, flopping its tail at such a
lively rate, — and then the sugar camp! This is not an
allegorical representation, but is a true picture, yet
maybe distance lends a little enchantment to the
view; but oh, the memory of the long ago, when so
often, with George Harvey and Bennett and "Ecca,"
going swimming in, or piscicapturing along the banks
of Cold Creek.
The Dead of Carmel
Below is a list of the dead of Bethlehem-Carmel
who have g-one the dolorous way, thoug-h not in proper
rotation and without date till July, 1890:
Mrs. Miriam Phelps
John Phelps, Sr.
John Phelps, Jr.
Andrew L. Warren
Miss Jennie Harvey
John W. Crew's wife
Miss Mary Crews
Josiah E. King
Mrs. Harriet King
J. E. King's three children
Miss Asenith Harvey
Two children of I. W. Stanton
John W. Crews' father
Miss Emma Carey
Joe Lloyd, Jr.
Miss Birdie Wilkinson
Child of Wm. Wilkinson, Jr.
D. W. Kinzer's child
Miss Ehza Oliphant
Miss Lennie Carey
Isaac Robert's boy
Levi Carey's child
Three children of Martin Plielps Isaac J. Bales' child
Stranger at Abner Atkinson's John P. Nutt's three children
Josiah S. Nutt
Mrs. Nancy Nutt
I. N. Beeson's wife
Dr. Dove's first wife
J. E. Strattan
William Wilkinson, Jr.
Miss Eosa Wilkinson
Little girl at Jesse Small's
William J. Hawkin's child
William A. Puckett's child
David M. Connel's child
Isaac W. Patty's child
Mrs. Diana West
Isaac W. Harold's child
Miss Mary Ann Newby
Harvey L. Davis' wife
Mrs. Ella Comer
Thomas E. Carey's first wife
Eli Binford's child
Elam Robert's child
Ben Ball's wife
Mr. Richardson's child
Mrs. Nancy Sharp
Cal. Smith's wife
Mrs. Eacliel Newby
Miss Lizzie S. Harold
D. Frank Lee
Wm. M. Harold's two children
Mrs. Ida Dixon
Mrs. Eliza Small
Wm. P. Dixon's three children
Allen Moon's boy
Mrs. Addie Harvey
Mrs. Nancy J. West
D. W. Patty's child
Dr. D. Carey's little girl
Miss Saide Carey
Rev. J. S. Mccarty's child
Mrs. John Patty, Sr,
Frank H King's three children
Eli Small, Sr.
Frank Gallagher's child
David Swaim's child
Levi A. Haines' child
David M. Connel
William Hedgecock's child
Timothy Smith's child
Dr. Daniel Carey
Z, Warren's three children — *
Mrs. Mollie Small
Dr. J. T. McShane's child
Dr. L. S. Campbell's child
Henry Roberts, Sr.
Dr. George Kane
Joseph Randall, Jr.'s wife
David Stewart's two children
William Blanchard, Sr.
Mrs. Elizabetli Blanchard
William Barker's child
Luther Beeson's wife
Miss Libbie Carey
James Cole, Sr.
Enoch Robert's child
David Swaim's wife
Coral E. Campbell
Harry Gray's child
J. Hill Davis' child
Henry Pierce's little girl
Mrs. Mary Hockett
Hannah Moffltt, Sr.
April — John F. Kemp's child
June — Lora Davis
June — Val. Davis' child
Aug. 26— Richard Rich
—John Eiley's child
March 7— Mrs. Ellen Riley
April —Mrs. Sallie Ann Oliphant
May —Mr. Toole's child
May —Isaac W. Harold
Oct. 27— Verne Davis
July —Henry Apple's wife
Sept. —Moses Sander's wife
— Simeon Hawkins
— Eebecca Hawkins
Mch. 29— Ira Haines' child
— Mrs. Jemima Small
Mch. 30— John Wilson's wife
May —Mrs. Rachel Harold
August —Mrs. Sue Haines
August — Cyrus Jeffries' child
Nov. 11— Emmanuel Harold, Sr.
Jan. 27— Charles O. Deming
April 19— William Frost
July — Isaac Carson
Aug. 20 — Henry Lyons' child
Nov. 8 — John Moon
— Chloe Harold
July 2 — Lillie Bales
July — Zella Comer's child
July 24 — Alfred T. Jessup
Oct. 13— Pinkney Gray's wife
Mch. 14— Miss Sallie Stewart
Mch. 25 — Henry Apple's boy
— Mary Jane Bond
Aug. — Ira J. Kinzer
Sept. 4_William Collins
Sept. 17 — Isaac Bond
— Oscar Johnson's child
— Henry Allee
April 16— Mrs. Julia Hutton
—Mack Smith's child
May 4 — Isaac W. Stanton
May 24— Mrs. Hattie Hawkins
Feb. 18— Lindley H. Stanley
July 2 — Glenn Comer
Oct. 9— Alfred W. Rayl's child
Oct. 29— Moover's child
Nov. 1— Rod. Wells' little girl
Feb. 16— William M. Harold
Mch. 27— Edgar Farlow
Aug. 27— Arthur Cox
Sept. 5— Frank Ballard's child
IN'ov. 5— Elwood E. Haines
Dee. 24— William Noblet's child
-Mrs. Isom Wickersham
-Mrs. Jane Bristow
-Mrs. Joseph Smith
-Miss Lydia Patty
-Mrs. Hannah Carey
Mch. 13— Harry Hiatt
April 19— L. J. Patty's child
Sept. 3 — Lewis Brokaw
Oct. 12— J. E. Johnson, stone mason
Feb. 3 — Henry Lyon's child
Mar. 30— Elizabeth Reynolds
May 18— Daniel Haworth
May 20— W. Martin Lanham
Aug. 24— Wilford Maple -Si—-
Nov. 19— Miss Ferrie White
— Harry Craft's child
Nov. 20 — Miss Glennie Stanley
Dec. 19— Robert Follet's child
Dec. 31— N. W. Lamb's little girl
Jan. 19 — Dr. Milton Carey's boy
Jan. 25 — Ed. Morrow's child
Mar. 17 — Isaac Roberts
April 17 — Mrs. John Middleton
May 16 — Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Stanton
Sept. 12— Elihu Jeffries' child
Sept. 12— Daniel Hiatt' s child
Oct. 24— Mahlon Haines
— John Hummer
Feb. 17— Mrs. Eliza Maple-^ ' '■--
— Mrs. Roberts
]STar. 29— John Phelps
June 8 — T. J. Johnson
June 8 — William Frank Carey
July 28— Miss Jennie Willey
Aug. 20 — Mrs. Cora Newlin
Oct. 25 — Mrs. William Brunson
Jan. 28— Miss Hannah Moffltt
Feb. — Cyrus Jeffries' child
Nov. 26— Mrs. Martha Allee
Mar. 18 — William Pryor
Aug. 6— Clarence White
Dec. 15— Mrs. 'Rebecca Newby
May. 18 — Mrs. Newlin
May. 18 — Mrs. Hannali J. Harold
Aug. 9 — Harry Symond's boy
Aug. 9— Stranger run over by train
Aug. 24— Mrs. Mollie Wilkinson
Aug. 25 — William Harrison Johnson
Sept. 16 — Aaron Cosand
Sept. 19— Mrs. Flavie Perry
Oct. 15— Albert Sanders' child
Nov. 24 — Mrs. Ann Stanley
Jan. 4— Elam Stanley
Feb. 4 — Mrs. Louisa Bond
May — Albert Jeffries' child
N^ov. 3— Mrs. Rebecca Roberts
Nov. 16— Ed. E. Small's little girl
Jan. 9— Mrs. Mary West
Mar. 2 — Mrs. Martha Haworth
Mar. 3— Mrs. Elizabeth Brunson
Mar. 22— Mrs. Martha Carey
April 21— John Middleton
April 25 — ^Mrs. Elizabeth Wilkinson
— Albert Sanders' child
July —Mr. Shearer's boy
August — Miss Lena Brunson
— Pleasant Hiatt
— Rev. McFarland's child
Nov. 13— Alpheus N. Farlow
Feb. 3— Harrison Johnson's wife
March 7— Lo. Small
May 13— Mrs. Margaret Stewart
— Mrs. Jane Haworth
May 31— Mrs. Mary Carey
July 20— Mrs. Elizabeth Peele
Dec. 30— Samuel P. Michener
March 8— Mr. Prim
May 5— Thomas West
Sept. 23— Frank H. King
Nov. 10— Edgar Brown's child
Jan. 27— Elmer Michener
Feb. 22— Mrs. Mary Minting-
April 12 — Mrs. Samuel Adams
April 18 — Eaymond Sanders
April 20— Miss Rhoda Moffltt
May 15— Eddie Farlow
June 9 — Mrs. Drusilla Wilson
July 1— Mrs. Rebecca Morris
Aug. 17 — Hiram Minting
Oct. — Mrs. Sarah Cosand
Oct. 21— Moses Sanders
Nov. 7— Forest Sanders
Dec. 6 — Miss Susie Robertson
Dec, 16— Charles Perisho
Feb. 6— Gideon Newby
Feb. 27— Alexander Jeffries
Mar. 28 — William J. Hawkins
June 19— Mrs. Eliza Williamson
Aug. 4 — Mrs. Phoebe Davenport
Aug. 31 — William Peele
Sept. 25— Clark Rayle
Oct. 14— Mrs. Follet
Oct. 17— Mrs. West
Nov. 7— Joseph E. Neal
Feb. 12— Dr. Calvin W. Cook
Mar. 17— Mrs. Emma Jeffries
April 24— Mrs. Lydia Rhoads
May 1— B. F. Akers
Sept. 8 — Albert A. Haines
Nov. 9 — Isaac K. Brokaw
Jan. 26— Mrs. Mary Chappell
Feb. 14 — Joshua M. Perisho
Feb. 27— Miss Eosa Haines
Mar. 3-J. William Nutt
Mar. 6— J. William Morrow
Having- given the above list of the dead of
Carmel, I will give a partial list of the old pioneers
and later settlers of the vicinity, who have passed
away, it being- understood that the good wives of
those mated are included:
Alexander Mills, Benjamin Mendenhall, Jacob
Green, Sr,, Owen Williams, Barnaby Newby, Jonas
Hoover, Johnson Gibson, Ezekiel Clampitt, Stephen
Hinshaw, Richard Clampitt, William Stubs, Jacob
Cook, Thomas Charles, Thomas Mills, Charles Lane.
Walter Thornburg, Ezekiel Wilson, George Gibson,
William Comer, John Hunt, John Kinzer, Peter Wise,
James Mendenhall, Zimri Cook, Isaac Rich, Eli
Phelps, Silas Moffitt, Steven Comer, George Davis,
George West, Joseph Wilson, William Wilkinson, Sr,,
Asaph Hiatt, Ornon Bond, Samuel Carey, Sr., Nathan
Harold, William Hiatt, Joseph Green, Zenas Carey, Sr, ,
Samuel Campbell, John Lanham, David Wilkinson,
Jonathan Evans, William Murphy, Stephen Macy,
Darias Power, Captain Todd, Nathan Davis, James
Williamson, Levi H. Cook, William Slater, Thomas
Harvey, Joseph White, Bohan Harvey, Thomas Sy-
mons, Enos Mills, Enos Davis, Sr,, John Thomas,
Solomon Hiatt, Elias Johnson, John Pierce, Samuel
Stafford, John Baron, Thomas Hazel, Isaac Coppock,
Eli Johnson, Andy Mills, Henry Cruse, Robert Moul-
ton, Eli Hockett, Samuel Wilson, Isaac Harold, Sr.,
John Hiatt, Joseph W. Macy, Jonathan Carey, Zebu-
Ion Mendenhall, John Appleg^ate, Ebenezar Apple-
g-ate, Sr., Joseph Rich, Samuel Harold, Sr., Barnaby
Frost, Henry Wilson, Thomas Lightfoot, Moses Rich,
John Metsker, Thomas Powell, John Manlove, Joseph
Hussey, Daniel Benson, John Lamb, William Rooker,
John West, Moses Puckett, Jirah Smith, James G.
McShane, Benjamin Harold, Emri Hunt, Stephen
Sharp, Burg-ess Lamb, Elias Harvey, Chas. Wilson, Sr.
Wm. Lindley, Henry Lamb, Levi Haines, Sr., Jonathan
Wilson, Samuel Cox, James Nutt, Sr., Samuel Bond,
Andrew Harold, Charles Myers, Sr., Amos H. Eskew,-
Erastus Hodg-en, Simon Davis, Samuel Bales, Isaac
W. Rayl, William Macy, Pinckney Gray, Georg-e
Stanley, Samuel Rooker, Isaac Wells, John Newby,
Eli Small Sr., Thomas Carey Sr., Evan Jessup,
William Oliphant, James Clark, Nathan Newby, Macy
Bond, John Lancaster, Sr., Franklin Hall, Sr., James
Hamar, William Jessup, Absalom Harold, Paris
Harrison, Isaac Jeffries, Sr., Samuel Smith, Freeman
Farley, James Harold, Noah Stafford, Samuel Small,
John Dauson, John C. Jessup, William Reynolds,
Sylvester Brunson, Jared Patten, John W. Crews,
Dr. J. S. Losay, Joseph Loyd, Sr., Charles Huffman,
Sr., Henry W. Henley, Riley Bond, Charles W.
Mofiitt, John Gilpin, Ellis W. Jessup, Pleasant Nance,
Bethel Dunning-, Elijah Thornburg-, Herbert Lee,
Joseph Bond, Ezekiel Thornburg-, Dr. L. S. Campbell,
Joshua Binford, James Stanton, Samuel Knig-ht,
Albert Randall, Henry Pierce, Cyrus Carey, Josiah
Stanley, Calvin Harvey, David Parquhar, Albert
Ellis, Madison Richardson, Jonah Fertig-, T. J. Apple-
gate, John E. Wicker, Joel Day, Joseph Gray, John
Kellam, Elam Stanley, Isaac Wrig-ht, William* H.
Hedg-ecock, Nathan Wilson, John H. Gray, Hamilton
Gray, Seth Green, Sr., Joel Phelps, Henry Gibson,
John Green, Clarkson T. Cook, Lemuel Carey, Sr.,
Christopher West, Thomas Rich, Isaac Carey, Thomas
West, Sr., Ira Mendenhall, Thomas Hawkins, Benja-
min West, James Burroug^hs, Jesse West, Richard
Georg-e, Peter Wise, John Todd, John Florer, Abner
Atkinson, Barnaby Todd, Thomas Hinshaw, J. Wilk,
Rooker, John Dunn, Salathiel Lamb, Job Smith,
Joseph P. Cook, Robert Todd, Thomas Campbell,
Cyrus Cook, Jehu Hawkins, Silas Wise, Jesse Small,
Benjamin Chappell, Jesse Georg-e, Silas Beeson, J. E.
King", Howell Thomas, Enos Noblet, Isaac Michener,
Thomas Todd, James M. Hanes, Hezekiah Collins,
Timothy Smith, Henry C. George, Nathan Stanley,
Isaac Newby, Absalom Elliott, John Smith, Jesse
Cook, Richard Power, Carey Mendenhall, Hinchman
Haines, John Burroug'hs, George Myers, Elihu Ran-
dall, Joseph Myers, Henderson Slater, Abram Jessup,
Harmon Cox, Stephen Hiatt, William Comer, Benja-
The above is a long list, they have all g"one to
the g"reat beyond, to sleep the sleep that knows no
waking", till the resurrection morn. Let us hope for
the best for them and all the countless dead who
have preceded them.